SRIMAD BHAGAVAD-GITA: CHAPTER ONE
Observing the Armies
dhrtarastrah uvacha–Dhrtarastra said: (he) sanjaya–O Sanjaya; dharma-ksetre kuru-ksetre–at the holy land of Kuruksetra; mamakah–Duryodhana and party; pandavah cha–and Yudhisthira and party; samavetah–who assembled; yuyutsavah–desirous of battle; eva–thereafter; akurvata kim–did what?
1 Dhrtarastra said: O Sanjaya, what happened when my sons and the sons of Pandu assembled for battle at the holy place of Kuruksetra?
sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: tada tu–Then; raja duryodhanah–King Duryodhana; drstva–having seen; pandava-anikam–the soldiers of the Pandavas; vyudham–arrayed in military formation; abravit–spoke; vachanam–the following words; upasangamya–approaching; acharyam–Dronacharya.
2 Sanjaya said: Seeing the Pandavas' soldiers and armies arrayed for battle, King Duryodhana approached Dronacharya and said:
pasyaitam pandu-putranam, acharya mahatim chamum
(he) acharya–O respected teacher; pasya–please observe; etam mahatim–this great; chamum–army of seven aksauhinis (one aksauhini is 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 65,610 horses, and 109,350 foot-soldiers); pandu-putranam–of the Pandavas; vyudham–arranged in military formation; tava dhimata sisyena–by your intelligent disciple; drupada-putrena–Dhrstadyumna, the son of Drupada.
3 O my teacher, please observe the great armies of the Pandavas, arranged in military formation by your brilliant disciple, Dhrstadyumna.
atra sura mahesvasa, bhimarjuna-sama yudhi
atra–In this phalanx; (santi)–are; surah–warriors; mahesvasah–great archers; bhima-arjuna-samah–comparable to Bhima and Arjuna; yudhi–in battle; (yatha)–such as; yuyudhanah–Satyaki; cha–and; viratah–King Virata; maha-rathah drupadah cha–and the great warrior Drupada; dhrstaketuh–Dhrstaketu; chekitanah–King Chekitana; viryavan kasirajah cha–and the powerful King of Kasi; purujit–Purujit; kunti-bhojah cha–and Kuntibhoja; nara-pungavah saibyah cha–and the noble King Saibya; vikrantah yudhamanyuh cha–and valiant Yudhamanyu; viryavan uttamaujah cha–heroic Uttamauja; saubhadrah–Abhimanyu; draupadeyah cha–and the sons of Draupadi; eva–indeed; sarva maha-rathah–all great warriors.
4-6 Among these soldiers are the expert archers Bhima, Arjuna and others equally skilled in battle, like Satyaki, King Virata, the great fighter Drupada, Dhrstaketu, Chekitana, the mighty hero Kasiraja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja, the noble King Saibya, the valiant Yudhamanyu, the herioc Uttamauja, Abhimanyu, and the sons of Draupadi. They are all great warriors, indeed.
asmakam tu visista ye, tan nibodha dvijottama
(he) dvija-uttama–O Dronacharya, best of the twice-born; nibodha–kindly consider; tan–those; asmakam–of us; tu ye visistah–who are the prominent; nayakah–commanders; mama sainyasya–of my armies; bravimi–I speak; te–to you; tan–of them; samjna-artham–by name.
7 O best of the twice-born, please consider, too, the foremost amongst us, the commanders of my armies. I submit their names before you:
bhavan bhismas cha karnas cha, krpas cha samitinjayah
bhavan–Your respected self; bhismah cha–Bhisma; karnah cha–and Karna; samitinjayah krpah cha–Krpa, who is victorious in battle; asvatthama–Asvatthama; vikarnah cha–Vikarna; saumadattih–Bhurisrava; jayadrathah–Jayadratha; anye cha bahavah surah–and many other warriors; (santi)–are present; nana-sastra-praharanah–armed with various weapons; sarve–all; yuddha-visaradah–skilled in battle; tyakta-jivitah–and prepared to sacrifice their lives; mad-arthe–for my sake.
8-9 Firstly there is your respected self, then Bhisma, Karna, the ever victorious Krpacharya, Asvatthama, Vikarna, Bhurisrava, Jayadratha and many other heroes skilled in the art of warfare, all armed with various weapons and prepared to lay down their very lives for me.
aparyaptam tad asmakam, balam bhismabhiraksitam
asmakam tat balam–That strength of our army; bhisma-abhiraksitam–protected by Bhisma; (bhati)–appears; aparyaptam–unlimited (or insuficient); tu–but; idam balam–the strength of this army; etesam–of theirs; bhima-abhiraksitam–protected by Bhima; (bhati)–appears; paryaptam–limited (or sufficient) [both interpretations are possible].
10 The strength of our army, headed by Bhisma, seems inestimable, yet the strength of the Pandavas' army, protected by Bhima, is estimable.
ayanesu cha sarvesu, yatha-bhagam avasthitah
bhavantah–You; sarve eva hi–all indeed; abhiraksantu–may support; bhismam eva–Bhisma; sarvesu ayanesu cha–at all points of entrance into the formation; avasthitah (santah)–being situated; yatha-bhagam–at your posts.
11 Now take up your posts at the strategic points of the formation in support of Bhisma.
tasya sanjanayan harsam, kuru-vrddhah pitamahah
pratapavan–The hero; kuru-vrddhah-pitamahah–the venerable 'grandfather' Bhisma; simha-nadam vinadya–roaring like the lion; sankham dadhmau–then blew his conchshell; uchchaih–very loudly; tasya harsam sanjanayan–for the pleasure of Duryodhana.
12 Then, with a war-cry like the roar of a lion, the venerable elder, Bhisma, loudly blew his conchshell to encourage Duryodhana.
tatah sankhas cha bheryas cha, panavanaka-gomukhah
tatah–Thereafter; sankhah cha bheryah cha panava-anaka gomukhah–conchshells, kettledrums, hand-drums, bugles and other instruments; sahasa eva abhyahanyanta–were immediately sounded. sah sabdah–That sound; tumulah abhavat–was tumultuous.
13 At once there arose a tumultuous vibration of conchshells, kettledrums, hand-drums, bugles and the resounding of many instruments.
tatah svetair hayair yukte, mahati syandane sthitau
tatah–Thereafter; madhavah pandavah cha eva–both Sri Krsna and Arjuna; sthitau–situated; mahati syandane–in a magnificent chariot; svetaih hayaih yukte–yoked with white horses; pradadhmatuh–sounded; divyau sankhau–divine conchshells.
14 Then Lord Sri Krishna and Arjuna, in a magnificent chariot drawn by white horses, blew their divine conchshells.
panchajanyam hrsikeso, devadattam dhananjayah
hrsikesah–Sri Krsna; dadhmau–sounded; panchajanyam–the Panchajanya; dhananjayah–Arjuna (sounded); devadattam–the Devadatta; (cha)–and; bhima-karma vrkodarah–the performer of mighty tasks, Bhimasena (sounded); maha-sankham–the great conchshell; paundram–named Paundra.
15 Hrsikesa blew His conchshell Panchajanya; Dhananjaya sounded his, the Devadatta; and Bhimsena, the performer of mighty tasks, blew the conchshell Paundra.
anantavijayam raja, kunti-putro yudhisthirah
kunti-putrah raja yudhisthirah–King Yudhisthira, the son of Kunti; (dadhmau)–sounded; anantavijayam–the Anantavijaya; nakulah sahadevah cha–and Nakula and Sahadeva (sounded); sughosa-manipuspakau–the conchshells named Sughosa and Manipuspaka.
16 King Yudhisthira, the son of Kunti, blew the Ananta-vijaya, while Nakula and Sahadeva blew the conchshells Sughosa and Manipuspaka.
kasyas cha paramesv-asah, sikhandi cha maha-rathah
(he) prthivi-pate–O lord of the earth, Dhrtarastra; kasyah cha–the King of Kasi; parama-isu-asah–skilled in bowmanship; maha-rathah sikhandi cha–and the great warrior, Sikhandi; dhrstadyumnah viratah cha–Dhrstadyumna and King Virata; cha–and; aparajitah–the unconquerable; satyakih–Satyaki; drupadah–King Drupada; draupadeyah cha–the sons of Draupadi; maha-bahuh saubhadrah cha–and the mighty Abhimanyu; sarvasah–all; dadhmuh–sounded; prthak prthak sankhan–their respective conchshells.
17-18 O lord of the earth, the skilled archer Kasiraja, the great warrior Sikhandi, Dhrstadyuma, King Virata, the unconquerable Satyaki, King Drupada, the sons of Draupadi, and the mighty son of Subhadra, Abhimanyu—all blew their conchshells.
sa ghoso dhartarastranam, hrdayani vyadarayat
sah tumulah ghosah–That tumultuous sound; abhyanunadayan–echoing; prthivim cha nabhah cha eva–throughout the land and heavens; vyadarayat–rent, pierced; hrdayani–the hearts; dhartarastranam–of the sons of Dhrtarastra.
19 Resounding throughout the land and heavens, the tremendous vibration of those conchshells pierced the hearts of the sons of Dhrtarastra.
atha vyavasthitan drstva, dhartarastran kapi-dhvajah
(he) mahi-pate–O King; atha–thereafter; pravrtte (sati)–at the time for commencing; sastra-sampate–the casting of weapons; kapi-dhvajah pandavah–Arjuna of the Hanuman flag; dhartarastran vyavasthitan drstva–having seen the sons of Dhrtarastra arrayed before him ready for battle; tada–at that time; dhanuh udyamya–taking up his bow; aha–spoke; idam vakyam–these words; hrsikesam–to Sri Krsna.
20 O King, as the battle was about to commence, Arjuna, whose chariot was adorned with the flag of Hanuman, seeing Duryodhana and his army poised for battle, took up his bow and said to Sri Krsna:
arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) achyuta–O Achyuta; sthapaya–please place; me ratham–my chariot; madhye–between; ubhayoh senayoh–both armies; yavat–so that; aham–I; nirikse–can observe; yoddhu-kaman avasthitan etan–these warriors desirous of battle; kaih saha–with whom; maya yoddhavyam–I have to fight; asmin rana-samudyame–on this battlefield; aham–and I; avekse–may see; (tan) yotsyamanan–the warriors; atra yuddhe–in this battle; ete ye samagatah–who have come; priya-chikirsavah–as well-wishers; durbuddheh dhartarastrasya–of wicked Duryodhana.
21-23 O Krishna, please place my chariot between the two armies so I may observe the warriors with whom I must contend on this battlefield, and who have come to fight for the satisfaction of the wicked Duryodhana.
sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: (he) bharata–O Dhrtarastra; evam uktah (san)–this being spoken; gudakesena–by Arjuna, the conqueror of sleep; hrsikesah–Sri Krsna; sthapayitva–placing; ratha-uttamam–the grand chariot; ubhayoh senayoh madhye–between both armies; (puratah)–before; bhisma-drona-pramukhatah–Bhisma, Drona and company; sarvesam cha mahi-ksitam–and all the chieftains; uvacha iti–spoke thus: (he) partha–O Arjuna; pasya–behold; samavetan etan kurun–these assembled Kurus.
24-25 Sanjaya said: O descendant of Bharata, after the vigilant Arjuna spoke these words, Sri Krishna, the Lord of the perceptions of all living beings, drew the grand chariot between both armies, before Bhisma, Drona and all the chieftains of the earth. The Lord then said: O Partha, behold the Kauravas assembled here for battle.
tatrapasyat sthitan parthah, pitrn atha pitamahan
atha–Thereafter; eva–certainly; parthah–Arjuna; api apasyat–could also see; sthitan–situated; tatra–there; (madhye)–within; ubhayoh senayoh–both armies; pitrn–paternal elders; pitamahan–grandfathers; acharyan–teachers; matulan–maternal elders; bhratrn–brothers; putran‐sons; pautran–grandsons; sakhin–friends; tatha svasuran–fathers-in-law; suhrdah cha–and well-wishers.
26 There, within both armies, Arjuna saw paternal and maternal elders, grandfathers, teachers, brothers, sons, grandsons, fathers-in-law, friends and other well-wishers.
tan samiksya sa kaunteyah, sarvan bandhun avasthitan
samiksya–Seeing; tan sarvan bandhun–all these kinsmen; avasthitan–present; (tatra)–on the battlefield; sah kaunteyah–that son of Kunti; paraya krpaya avistah–overwhelmed with great compassion; visidan (san)–and being grief-stricken; idam abravit–spoke thus.
27 Seeing his kinsmen present on the battlefield, Arjuna, the son of Kunti, was grief-stricken and overcome with pity. He said:
arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) Krsna–O Krsna; drstva–seeing; iman svajanan–all these friends and relatives; samavasthitan–assembled; yuyutsun–and desirous of battle; mama gatrani–my body; sidanti–feels exhausted; mukham cha parisusyati–and my mouth is becoming dry.
28 O Krishna, seeing all these relatives and friends assembled and eager for battle, the strength is draining from my limbs and my mouth feels parched.
vepathus cha sarire me, roma-harsas cha jayate
me sarire–In my body; vepathuh–are tremors; cha–and; romaharsah–bodily hairs standing on end; cha jayate–is also occuring. gandivam–The bow Gandiva; sramsate–is slipping; hastat–from my hand; tvak cha–and my skin; paridahyate eva–burns too.
29 I am trembling and the hairs on my body are standing on end, my skin is burning and I am losing grip of my Gandiva bow.
na cha saknomy avasthatum, bhramativa cha me manah
(he) kesava–O Sri Krsna; cha–and; (aham)–I; na saknomi–am unable to; ava-sthatum cha–compose myself any longer; iva–as; me manah–my mind; bhramati–is flickering; pasyami cha–and I see; viparitani nimittani–bad omens.
30 O Kesava, I cannot maintain my composure any longer. My mind is disturbed and I see bad omens.
na cha sreyo 'nupasyami, hatva svajanam ahave
(he) Krsna–O Krsna; na anupasyami cha–nor do I see; sreyah–any good; svajanam hatva–in killing my kinsmen; ahave–in battle. (aham)–I; vijayam na kankse–desire neither victory; na cha rajyam cha sukhani–nor the enjoyment of a kingdom.
31 I do not see any good in killing my kinsmen in this battle. O Krishna, I have no wish for victory or to enjoy a kingdom.
kim no rajyena govinda, kim bhogair jivitena va
(he) govinda–O Sri Krsna; kim nah rajyena–of what value is our kingdom; kim va bhogaih jivitena–and what is the need of its royal pleasures, or life itself; yesam arthe–if those for whom; nah–our; rajyam bhogah sukhani cha–kingdom with its pleasures and enjoyable objects; kanksitam–is desirable; te ime–all these; acharyah–teachers; pitarah–fatherly elders; putrah–sons; tatha eva cha–and also even; pitamahah–grandfathers; matulah–maternal uncles; svasurah–fathers-in-law; pautrah–grandsons; syalah–brothers-in-law; tatha sambandhinah–and other relatives; yuddhe avasthitah–are present on the battlefield; tyaktva–risking; dhanani pranan cha–their wealth and lives? (he) madhusudana–(Therefore,) O Madhusudana; ghnatah api–though I may be killed by them; na ichchhami–I do not wish; etan hantum–to kill them.
32-34 O Govinda, if those for whom we desire all this—teachers, paternal and maternal elders, sons, grandfathers, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and other relatives—are about to risk their wealth and lives in battle, of what value is our kingdom and its royal pleasures, or even life itself? O Madhusudana, I do not wish to kill them even though I, myself, may be killed.
api trailokya-rajyasya, hetoh kim nu mahi-krte
(he) janardana–O Sri Krsna; ka pritih syat–what happiness can be possible; nah–for us; nihatya–by killing; dhartarastran–the sons of Dhrtarastra; trailokya rajyasya hetoh api–for the sovereignty of even the three worlds; mahi-krte kim nu–not to speak of ruling the earth?
35 O Janardana, even if we gain sovereignty over the three worlds, not to speak of ruling the earth, how can we be happy if we kill the sons of Dhritarastra?
papam evasrayed asman, hatvaitan atatayinah
(he) madhava–O Madhava; papam eva–only sin; asrayet–will enter; asman–us; hatva–by killing; etan atatayinah–these adversaries. tasmat–Therefore; vayam–we; na arhah–are wrong; hantum–to kill; svabandhavan–our own family members; dhartarastran–the sons of Dhrtarastra. svajanam hatva hi–By killing our kinsmen; katham–how; (vayam) syama–can we be; sukhinah–happy?
36 Only sin will befall us if we slay our teachers and guardians, though they be our adversaries. We cannot take the lives of our own relatives, the sons of Dhritarastra. O Madhava, how can we be happy by killing our kinsmen?
yadyapy ete na pasyanti, lobhopahata-chetasah
(he) janardana–O Janardana, Krsna; yadyapi ete–although these persons; lobha-upahata-chetasah (santah)–their hearts being afflicted with greed; patakam na pasyanti–do not see the sin; mitra-drohe–of betraying one's friends; cha–and; kula-ksaya-krtam dosam–the sin of destroying the dynasty; (tathapi)–nonetheless; katham–how; na jneyam–should it not be known; asmabhih–by us; nivartitum–to refrain; asmat papat–from this sinful act; prapasyadbhih–clearly seeing; kula-ksaya-krtam dosam–the evil of destroying the dynasty?
37-38 Athough they, overwhelmed with greed, cannot see the sin of betraying one's friends and destroying the dynasty, O Janardana, how can we not refrain from this heinous act, being in full knowledge of the consequences?
kula-ksaye pranasyanti, kula-dharmah sanatanah
kula-ksaye–With the decline of the dynasty; sanatanah–the traditional; kula-dharmah–religious practices of the dynasty; pranasyanti–are destroyed. dharme naste (sati)–When religious practices are lost; adharmah–irreligion; abhibhavati–over-comes; krtsnam uta kulam–the entire dynasty.
39 With the decline of the dynasty, its religious traditions are lost. When religious practices are lost, irreligion overcomes the entire dynasty.
adharmabhibhavat krsna, pradusyanti kula-striyah
(he) Krsna–O Krsna; adharma-abhibhavat–when the family is overcome by irreligion; kula-striyah–the women of the family; pradusyanti–are polluted. (he) varsneya–O descendant of the Vrsni dynasty; strisu dustasu (satsu)–when the women of the family become corrupt; jayate–the result is; varna-sankarah–adulterated progeny.
40 O Krishna, descendant of the Vrisni dynasty, when the dynasty is thus overcome by irreligion, the women of the family become corrupt and adulterated progeny is the result.
sankaro narakayaiva, kula-ghnanam kulasya cha
sankarah–Adulterated progeny; narakaya eva (bhavati)–causes a hellish condition; kulasya kula-ghnanam cha–for both the dynasty and its destroyers. esam–Their; pitarah–forefathers; patanti hi–surely fall; lupta-pinda-udaka-kriyah–due to the cessation of obsequial offerings of food and water.
41 Adulterated progeny forces both the family and its aggressors into a hellish existence. The same fate befalls their ancestors, because regular offerings of food and water to them cease.
dosair etaih kula-ghnanam, varna-sankara-karakaih
etaih dosaih–By such heinous acts; kula-ghnanam–of the destroyers of the dynasty; varna-sankara-karakaih–causing varnasankara, adulterated progeny; sasvatah–traditional; kula-dharmah jati-dharmah cha–familial and socio-religious functions; utsadyante–are ruined.
42 Such heinous acts by the destroyers of the dynasty are the cause of adulterated progeny, ruining the culture of a civilized society and noble lineage.
utsanna-kula-dharmanam, manusyanam janardana
(he) janardana–O Janardana; (vayam) anususruma–We have heard; iti–that; manusyanam–for those persons; utsanna-kula-dharmanam–whose family traditions have been destroyed; niyatam–constant; narake vasah–residence in hell; bhavati–occurs.
43 O Janardana, we have heard that persons whose familial, social and religious traditions are disrupted dwell always in hell.
aho bata mahat-papam, kartum vyavasita vayam
aho bata–Alas, what a tragedy. vayam–We; vyavasitah–have resolved; kartum–to commit; mahat-papam–a most heinous sin. yat rajya-sukha-lobhena–Out of greed for royal pleasures; udyatah–we are prepared; svajanam hantum–to slay our relatives.
44 Alas, what a grave sin we have resolved to commit! Driven by greed for trifling royal happiness, we are about to slay our own kinsmen.
yadi mam apratikaram, asastram sastra-panayah
yadi–If; dhartarastrah–the sons of Dhrtarastra; sastra-panayah–equipped with weapons; hanyuh–kill; mam–me; asastram–unarmed; apratikaram–and unresisting; rane–in battle; tat–that; bhavet–will be; ksemataram–more auspicious; me–for me.
45 If, unarmed and unresisting, I am killed on this battlefield by the armed sons of Dhrtarastra, that will be more auspicious for me.
sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: arjunah–Arjuna; evam uktva–having thus spoken; sankhye–on the battlefield; visrjya–casting aside; chapam–bow; sa-saram–and arrows; upavisat–sat down; ratha-upasthah–on the chariot; soka-samvigna-manasah–his heart heavy with sorrow.
46 Sanjaya said: There, on the battlefield, speaking these words, Arjuna cast aside his bow and arrows and sat down on the chariot, his heart filled with sadness.
iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
End of Chapter One
Observing the Armies
from the conversation
|HARE KRISHNA HARE KRISHNA KRISHNA KRISHNA HARE HARE | HARE RAMA HARE RAMA RAMA RAMA HARE HARE|
© 2014-2019, Sri Chaitanya Saraswat Math, Nabadwip, India.
Sitemap | Contact us | About us