SRIMAD BHAGAVAD-GITA: CHAPTER FOTEN
The Divine Glories of the Lord
sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: (he) maha-baho–O mighty-armed Arjuna; srnu–hear; bhuyah eva–once again; me–My; paramam–supreme; vachah–word; yat–since; aham–I; vaksyami–will speak; te priyamanaya–to you, who are very dear to Me; hita-kamyaya–desiring your welfare.
1 The Supreme Lord said: O heroic Arjuna, listen to My supreme word once again. Desiring your welfare, I shall speak to you, who are very dear to Me.
na me viduh sura-ganah, prabhavam na maharsayah
na–neither; sura-ganah–the demigods; na–nor; maha-rsayah–the great sages; viduh–understand; me–My; prabhavam–transcendental birth; hi–because; sarvasah–in all respects; aham adih–I am the origin; devanam–of the demigods; maha-rsinam cha–and of the great sages, too.
2 Neither the demigods nor the great sages can understand My transcendental appearance in this world, as I alone am the origin of those celestial beings and sages.
yo mam ajam anadim cha, vetti loka-mahesvaram
yah–One who; vetti–knows; mam–Me, the son of Devaki; ajam–as the birthless; anadim–the beginningless; loka-maha-isvaram cha–and the Supreme Lord of all beings; sah–he; asammudhah–undeluded; martyesu–among men; pramuchyate–is liberated; sarva-papaih–from all sins or obstacles to devotion.
3 One who knows Me, the son of Devaki, as the birthless, beginningless, Supreme Lord of all beings, is undeluded among men and completely liberated from sin.
buddhir jnanam asammohah, ksama satyam damah samah
(ete)–All these; prthak-vidhah bhavah–various qualities; bhutanam–of the living beings; bhavanti–are born; mattah eva–of Me alone: buddhih–ability to determine subtle meanings; jnanam–ability to discriminate between spirit and matter; asam-mohah–freedom from delusion; ksama–tolerance; satyam–truthfulness; damah–control of the external senses; samah–control of the internal senses; sukham–happiness; duhkham–unhappiness; bhavah–birth; abhavah–death; bhayam cha–fear; abhayam eva cha–and fearlessness; ahimsa–nonviolence; samata–equanimity, seeing the happiness and unhappiness of all beings as one's own; tustih–satisfaction; tapah–austerity as directed in the Vedas; danam–charity; yasah–fame; ayasah (cha)–and infamy.
4-5 Intelligence, knowledge, freedom from delusion, forbearance, truthfulness, mental control, sense control, happiness, unhappiness, birth, death, fear, courage, nonviolence, equanimity, satisfaction, austerity, charity, fame and infamy—all these various attributes of the living beings are born of Me alone.
maharsayah sapta purve, chatvaro manavas tatha
(ete) mat-bhavah–All these personalities, empowered by Me; manasah jatah–are born of My mind, which is manifest as Hiranyagarbha, Lord Brahma: sapta maha-rsayah–the seven great sages—Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and Vasistha; purve–and their predecessors; chatvarah–the four sages Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanat-kumara and Sanatana, all known as brahmarsis; tatha manavah–and the fourteen Manus headed by Svayambhuva. imah prajah loke–Mankind—brahmana, etc., and all progeny; yesam–descends from these patriarchs.
6 The seven great sages headed by Marichi, and preceding them, the four brahmana sages headed by Sanaka, and also the fourteen Manus or progenitors headed by Svayambhuva—all are empowered by Me and are born of Lord Brahma, who is a manifestation of My mind. Mankind and all progeny descends from these patriarchs.
etam vibhutim yogam cha, mama yo vetti tattvatah
yah–One who; vetti–knows; tattvatah–in truth; etam–this; vibhutim–supremacy; cha–and; yogam–(bhakti-) yoga; mama–of Mine; sah–such a person; yujyate–is linked; avikalpena–by undeviating; yogena–knowledge of essential truth. atra–In this matter; na samsayah (asti)–there is no doubt.
7 One who thus knows in truth My supremacy and devotional service serves Me in unwavering realization. Of this there is no doubt.
aham sarvasya prabhavo, mattah sarvam pravartate
aham prabhavah–I am the Supreme Absolute Truth, svayam Bhagavan or the original Supreme Lord, the cause; sarvasya–of all causes, including Brahman, Paramatman and Bhagavan. sarvam–All activity in the universe of matter and spirit, and the Vedas and allied scriptures; pravartate–arise; mattah–from Me. matva–Realizing; iti–this deep truth; budhah–persons of fine theistic intelligence; bhava-samanvitah–in their divine relationship of servitude, friendship, etc.; bhajante–worship, adore; mam–Me.
8 I am Krishna, the Sweet Absolute, the origin of all. The entire universe of material and transcendental play, activity, purpose, and the Vedas and allied scriptures which give guidance—all evolve from Me alone. Realizing this hidden treasure, persons of fine theistic intelligence surpass the mundane and embrace the path of love divine, ragamarga, and adore Me forever.
Verses 8–11 are the four principal verses of Srimad Bhagavad-gita. The ontological substance of the book is contained within these four essential verses beginning, aham sarvasya prabhavo—"Everything evolves from Me."
In the Srimad Bhagavatam (1.2.11), the three main conceptions of the Absolute are given as Brahman, Paramatman, and Bhagavan. Brahman is the all-comprehensive aspect of the Absolute, Paramatman is the all-permeating aspect of the Absolute, and Bhagavan is the personal conception of the Absolute. The word Bhagavan is generally defined as stated in the Visnu Purana (6.5.47),
aisvaryasya samagrasya, viryasya yasasah sriyah
"He who is full with all the six opulences of wealth, power, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation is known as Bhagavan, the Supreme Lord."
The characteristic of Bhagavan, as Lord Narayana, is that all kinds of potencies are personally controlled by Him. However, Srila Jiva Goswami has given a special and particularly fine interpretation: Bhagavan means bhajaniya guna-visista. His nature is such that whoever comes into contact with Him cannot resist serving Him. No one can resist feeling moved to worship and adore His charming personality. As Lord Krishna, He attracts the love of everyone.
Therefore, by the word sarvasya, Lord Krishna indicates, "I am svayam Bhagavan, the Supreme Lord Himself. I am the origin of not only Brahman and Paramatman. I am also the origin of the Master of all potencies who commands the respect of everyone, Lord Narayana of Vaikuntha.
"Mattah sarvam pravarttate—Every attempt and movement begins from Me, including the methods by which everyone worships and serves Me in devotion."
nayam atma pravachanena labhyo
"The Lord cannot be known by logic, intelligence or extensive study of the scriptures. But He reveals Himself to one who is eager to serve Him and prays to Him for His grace."
In this way, mattah sarvam pravarttate—"I am the first to reveal to the people, 'Worship Me in this way.' I appear as Guru, and through him, I worship Myself."
In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.17.27), the Guru is described by the Lord as His own direct manifestation:
acharyam mam vijaniyan, navamanyeta karhichit
(Sri Krishna said to His devotee, Uddhava:) "You should know the bona fide spiritual master as My very Self. Gurudeva is the embodiment of all the gods. Never dishonour him or find fault in him by ascribing any mundane conception of place, time and circumstances to him."
Furthermore, the Lord's finest potency is Srimati Radharani. Of course, there are many other eternal associates, but the highest order of devotional service is represented in Srimati Radharani. The Lord is therefore saying, "My worship is shown by Me. I, as My finest potency, worship Myself. Iti matva bhajante mam—understanding this conception, the devotee will come to worship Me, always under the direction of My best worshipper-My finest potency and representation—Radharani, or Gurudeva. Crossing Her, the highest and most desirable form of service to Me is not possible."
Radha-dasyam, the servitorship of Srimati Radharani, is indicated here. Only those who are blessed with divine intelligence will be able to appreciate this, and not persons with self-acquired intelligence from this mayika quarter, the world of misconception. In this verse, the word budhah refers to sumedhasah as described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.32), or persons of fine theistic intelligence arising from direct connection with the transcendental plane. The inner guidance and direction they receive is the outcome of sukrti, divine merit acquired by the association of pure devotees. Bhava-samanvitah means raga-samanvitah—anuraga—love and attraction which is affinity, not by strictly following scriptural rules or drawn from any plane of loss and gain, but from bhava, inner divine inspiration. Devotion of this high type is completely non-calculative (jnana-sunya bhakti), as described by Srila Rupa Goswami in his Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.9):
anyabhilasita sunyam, jnana-karmady anavrtam
"The highest devotion is that which satisfies Lord Krishna, free from the coverings of any pursuits such as action and knowledge."
The most rare and elevated stage of devotion is in the line of spontaneous devotion, known as raga-marga. In that line, guided by the qualified Guru, an elevated pure devotee may attain service to a leader of one of the groups of Krishna's personal associates who serve the Lord in His pastimes in a relationship of friendship (sakhya-rasa), parenthood (vatsalya-rasa) or consorthood (madhura-rasa). In Vrndavana the Lord is served in spontaneous devotion by His friends headed by Subala Sakha, and by His parental devotees headed by Nanda Maharaj and mother Yasoda. The Gopis headed by Lalita and Visakha serve Him in consorthood. But amongst all His associates, and amongst all the Gopis, the highest order of divine loving service is rendered to the Lord by Srimati Radharani. Therefore, the acme of raga-marga is the service of Radharani (Radha-dasyam). This is the highest objective of the Rupanuga Gaudiya Sampradaya, the followers of pure devotion as taught by Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada, in the line of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
mach-chitta mad-gata-prana, bodhayantah parasparam
mat-gata-pranah–Those who have dedicated their lives to Me; mat-chittah–who always think of Me; mam kathayantah cha–and talk about Me; bodhayantah parasparam (santah)–enlightening one another with the nectar of their devotional realizations; nityam–are ever; tusyanti cha–satisfied; ramanti cha–and ecstatic.
9 Always thinking of Me, those surrendered souls converse about Me, enlightening one another with the nectar of their devotional realizations, ever content and ecstatic in their divine natures.
The Supreme Lord Krishna is speaking about His pure devotees. "I am in the heart of their hearts, in their every thought. Their entire energy—their whole life—is dedicated to My satisfaction. They converse with one another about Me and experience mutual enlightenment. They always love to talk about Me with whoever they meet, and nothing else. For every time, place and circumstance, I am the only subject of their discussion. They find very much satisfaction in this (tusyanti cha)." Up to the divine relationship of parenthood, there is the feeling of satisfaction.
Furthermore, ramanti cha—"Just as a wife enjoys a conjugal relationship with her husband, the devotees similarly feel such ecstasy in My intimate company when speaking about Me." This has also been mentioned by the previous Acharyas.
tesam satata-yuktanam, bhajatam priti-purvakam
tesam priti-purvakam bhajatam–To those loving devotees; satata-yuktanam–who are always engaged in My service; (aham)–I; dadami–give; tam–that; buddhi-yogam–inspiration; yena–by which; te–they; upayanti–can come; mam–to Me.
10 To those devotees who are always lovingly engaged in My service, I give the divine inspiration by which they can come to Me.
The Lord says, "The highest group of My servitors (whose devotion was described in the previous verse by the word ramanti) are those who are constantly engaged (satata-yukta) in My service in consorthood (madhura-rasa) with heartfelt love (bhajatam priti-purvakam)." Then He says that He will give them further inspiration or inner instruction 'by which they can come to Him' (yena mam upayanti te). When already in this and the previous verse the devotees' service to the Lord has been described as eternal (by the words nityam and satata-yukta), now the statement that He will give them further inspiration 'by which they can come to Him' may appear to be redundant. Therefore, in the expression mam upayanti te ("They will come to Me"), the word upayanti must be defined as parakiya-bhavena-upapati. Pati means husband, and upapati means paramour.
In Vrndavana, Lord Krishna is not considered a lawful husband, but He is the Lord of the heart, transcendental to even the husband (parakiya-rasa). Deceiving their husbands, the gopis of Vrndavana unite with Krishna. They do not allow a second party to come between them and Krishna. They cannot allow the interception of social law or even scriptural regulation, because Krishna's position is absolute, and such a relationship is more relishable to Him. This is *Vrndavana bhajana, and this is the meaning of upapati.
*vikriditam vraja-vadhubhir idam cha visnoh
"A self-controlled person who possesses sincere faith in the divine pastimes transcendentally enjoyed by Lord Krishna with the Gopis (Rasa-lila), and who, having heard those divine pastimes from the lotus mouth of the bona fide Guru constantly sings or narrates their glories-such a person swiftly achieves the most elevated form of pure devotion for the Lord, and is promptly able to ward off the heart disease of lust."
In his writings, Srila Jiva Goswami has laid stress on the word dhira, meaning 'self-controlled.' To hear these elevated subjects, one must enter into the culture of sense-control, otherwise he will be lost.
naitat samacharej jatu, manasapi hy anisvarah
"No one should ever even think of imitating this behaviour of the Supreme Lord and the Gopis. If out of gross foolishness anyone tries to imitate the pastimes of the Lord, he will be destroyed, as though imitating Lord Siva by drinking the poison which arose from the ocean." (It is described in the Srimad Bhagavatam that once the demigods and the demons jointly engaged in churning the ocean to produce nectar. Both nectar and poison were produced, and Lord Siva, by his power, could hold the poison within his throat.)
"My relationship with them is independent of everything conceivable, including law, society and the scriptures. It is most innate and natural, and it does not require any social or scriptural sanction. I say to them, 'You may show formal respect to all these restrictions and live in the society. But from the heart of your heart, you are Mine.' This is the special inspiration and insight I give those devotees (buddhi-yogam yena mam upayanti te).
"Externally there are social and scriptural demands, but My position is over and above them. Veda is My instruction for the benefit of the masses who have deviated from Me, and society is also under the jurisdiction of those general instructions given to the people by Me. But My divine relationship with everything is intrinsic and independent. It does not require recognition from anyone. Such a relationship is the highest. It is the constant. It supercedes all law and society which are guided by the Vedas; rather, all the Vedas are searching for such a thing."
Srutibhir vimrgyam (Bhag. 10.47.61); visesa-mrgya—the Vedas are searching after this ideal divine position. In the section of the Srimad Bhagavatam which deals with Rasa-lila, the Vedas are begging forgiveness.
"We are generally supposed to give tidings of You, but we could not describe You as we now experience You here. Now we understand that we have committed an offence, because we could not distribute this Rasa-lila to the world."
Like signposts, all the revealed scriptures are only showing the direction; but where, how? "We don't know." Only, "He may be available in this direction."
Anywhere and everywhere, everything belongs to Him. For one who knows this, all possibilities of sense pleasure and exploitation are uprooted. For example, an unmarried woman may have the possibility of being approached by many, but there is less possibility for those who are married, because they are possessed by someone. Similarly, when we are able to know that everything is only for the satisfaction of Krishna, then we shall realize that all our exploiting tendencies have vanished forever. Nothing will remain to be utilized for the pleasure of our sense-experience. It will be very deeply felt in our hearts that everything has its existence only for His satisfaction, and there is no room for any other exploitation.
We, too, are included there—our existence is also only for His satisfaction. Everything is meant for His divine pastimes (lila), and there is no possibility for any others' pastimes. All are included in that one lila. Encroachment will disappear when we learn the proper utility of everything. He is the owner, and His ownership is absolute. The scriptures, society, and law designate, "This is yours, that is another's, or that belongs to a third party." This is something like a temporary lease, but the permanent ownership is in all respects with Him. All others-possessor and property, master and servant—are relative, and only sanctioned by Him for the time being. He alone is the absolute owner, possessor and enjoyer. Complete purification of our hearts is possible only when we arrive at such a conclusion. Everyone is thinking of themselves as many masters of many things, but this is all 'heart disease' (hrd-rogam). This is all conceived in a diseased state of consciousness. In a healthy state, when the heart is quite wholesome, we can see the Supreme Whole, and we can see that everything is meant only for His satisfaction.
tesam evanukampartham, aham ajnana-jam tamah
anukampa-artham–Out of compassion; tesam eva–for them; aham–I; atmabhava-sthah–appearing within their hearts; nasayami–destroy; bhasvata jnanadi pena–with the shining lamp of knowledge; tamah–the darkness; ajnana-jam–born of ignorance.
11  Out of compassion for them, I, situated within the hearts of all living beings, dispel the darkness of ignorance with the radiance of knowledge.
 Being conquered by the love of those devotees who in their unalloyed loving devotion become afflicted by the all-devouring darkness born of their pangs of separation from Me, I illuminate their hearts with My presence, destroying the darkness of their pain of separation.
Of the two translations given above, the first is the most general interpretation of this verse. But if we appreciate pure, noncalculative devotion (jnana-sunya bhakti), the Lord's statement here may again appear redundant and inconsistent.
When those high devotees are already admitted to be performing continuous and unadulterated service, and even above that, they are situated in the plane of pure love, spontaneous and automatic (raga-marga), how can it be harmonized that the Lord will now in the last stage destroy their ignorance (tamah) born of misunderstanding (ajnana-jam), by giving them knowledge (jnana)? Jnana is only a cover-a futile, finite conception of the infinite Absolute (jnana-karmady anavrtam...bhaktir uttama). When they have achieved devotion devoid of the covering of knowledge (jnana-sunya bhakti), how will they again have to return to that knowledge (jnana)? In his commentary, Srila Visvanath Chakravarti Thakur has mentioned that this knowledge is extraordinary (vilaksanam), though he did not enter into specific detail. To clarify this point, we have given the following explanation:
Lamentation and delusion are generally known to be symptoms of the mode of ignorance (tamo-guna). In jnana-sunya bhakti, the elevated devotees who take Krishna not as the Supreme God, but as a friend, son, husband, or lover, will come to experience lamentation and delusion, but this is only an outward appearance of ignorance. In fact, it is the pain of divine separation. They lament. "Where have You gone?"
In this verse, the Lord's statement, tesam evanukampartham generally means "Fortunately for them," or, "To favour them (I dispel their darkness, etc.)." But it may also be interpreted, "I want their favour. I aspire for the favour of those devotees of the highest order."
The Lord also says to the Gopis in the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.82.44):
mayi bhaktir hi bhutanam, amrtatvaya kalpate
"In general, people want devotion to Me to achieve eternal life. To cross the limit of mortality and to have eternal life, they come to Me and worship Me. For these reasons they want My service, but fortunately for you, O Gopis, you have some natural affection towards Me. That will ultimately bring you to Me."
This is the general meaning. However, in Sri Chaitanya-charitamrta, Srila Krishnadasa Kaviraja Goswami has drawn out the inner meaning of what Krishna is saying to the Gopis, which is just the opposite:
"Through devotion, everyone wants Me to help them attain the highest position of eternal benefit, and if they have a connection with Me, they consider themselves fortunate. But I consider Myself fortunate because I have come in touch with the valuable affection that I found in your hearts. By My fortune, I have got your association."
Therefore, here in Sri Gita, the Lord is saying, "Tesam evanukampartham—being conquered by the love of those unalloyed devotees, when I cannot tolerate their pain of separation, I at once come running to satisfy them, and I reveal to them with special light, special consciousness, 'I have returned to you—see Me now.' With powerful brilliance (jnana-dipena) I show them My presence when they are very much in need of Me, and I relieve their pain of separation."
Atma-bhava-sthah: He reveals Himself according to His devotee's divine relationship with Him (rasa): to a friend, as a friend; to a mother, as a child; to a wife, as a husband; and to the sweethearts, as a paramour.
After Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu left home and accepted the renounced order of life, sannyasa, mother Sachi could not tolerate the deep separation, and she began to cry. Sachidevi was preparing excellent dishes, offering them to the Deity, and weeping. "Where is my Nimai? He's very fond of these curries—His favourite dishes, and Nimai is not here." Suddenly, Lord Chaitanya came and began to eat. Sachidevi exclaimed, "Oh, Nimai is eating!" and for the time being her separation was relieved. Moments later, she reconsidered, "Did I see Nimai eating? But He is now a sannyasi in Jagannatha Puri, so how could He have come here? Did I serve Him? There must be a mistake." Then she examined the pots again to see if there was food there. Finding them empty, she began to conjecture whether even a dog or some other animal had come and eaten it. But during that moment, Nimai had actually come, and mother Sachi saw Him in broad daylight. That illumination is transcendental, and not the 'knowledge' (jnana) that is generally known in our vocabulary.
The acme of theism is Parakiya-rasa. Parakiya means 'another's.' In every divine relationship, the Lord captures all. In the whole of Vrndavana where everyone follows the path of love (raga-marga), this parakiya-rasa is infused. The friends of Krishna sometimes say, "Some people say that Krishna is a resident of Mathura. They say He's the son of Vasudeva, and He will soon go to Mathura. They say He is not our friend! Will we really lose His company? Then how will we be able to live in this jungle and herd the cows?" They experience this apprehension—"We may lose Him at any time." This intensifies their friendly service to Him.
Similarly, Mother Yasoda thinks, "Some say that Krishna is not my son, He's Devaki's son. What is this? I won't admit this. He's my child!" This idea enhances Yasoda's affection for Krishna: "I may lose Him? Then how shall I live?" Therefore, the parakiya-rasa stresses the rarity of Krishna's relationship, because the possibility of losing His company is always in the background. But the highest intensity of service is to be found in the madhura-rasa (consorthood) group. In the other rasas, there is the idea of suspense that He may 'go away,' but in the consorthood relationship in the divine abode of Vrndavana, the consorts cross the direction of the scriptures and the society, which guide everyone to remain as husband and wife (svakiya). Parakiya ('another's') has been accepted in the science of devotion as the highest conception, above the socially and scripturally sanctioned svakiya ('one's own').
Parakiya or paramour relationship nourishes the pastimes of Krishna by deceiving one who claims ownership over another, such as a husband over a wife, or a parent over a child. The normally accepted relationship of svakiya is commonplace, but to cross the jurisdiction of the scriptures and society, as a paramour, means a greater risk as if to commit sin. Thus, this relationship is very rare, and rarity enhances its intensity and value. The idea of deceiving the 'possessor' to favour the 'non-possessor' (in the spiritual sense) is a beautiful, ornamental conception. Actually, in Krishna's case there cannot be any state of paramourship, because in truth He is the owner of everything. However, the divine arrangement is fashioned in this way to enhance the devotee's internal devotion for the Lord, just as food appears more tasteful when hunger is present.
In Vaikuntha, the nature of the worship of Lord Visnu is gorgeous, majestic, reverential, and awe-inspiring. But above that, in the highest conception, Godhead is human-like in form and nature. It is stated in Sri Chaitanya-charitamrta in the teachings to Sanatana Goswami:
krsnera yateka khela, sarvvottama nara-lila,
"The highest form of Godhead is Krishna, who plays in His eternal divine pastimes like a human being. An everyouthful cowherd boy of Vrndavana, the best of dancers, He enjoys His pastimes, always playing His flute. His beauty is so charming and sweet that the whole universe is flooded by even the tiniest atom of it, and all beings are attracted irresistibly to Him."
He is approachable by all. We can find God nearest of all—in a human feature. It has been explained how Krishna's form of human feature is the highest form of the Absolute, according to the calculation of ecstasy (rasa), which is the common standard of measurement of the whole scope of the Infinite. By the development of santa-, dasya-, sakhya-, vatsalya-, and madhura-, and then parakiya-rasa (tranquillity, servitude, friendship, parenthood, consorthood, and then paramour relationship), this is scientifically proven, without whimsical or blind faith. If we follow the line of Rupanuga-bhajana (devotion following the line of Srila Rupa Goswami) which originates from Sri Chaitanyadeva, this scientific basis can be appreciated. The previous Acharyas have left comprehensive teachings for us on how to follow, conceive and attain all these things.
arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (aham manye)–I accept; bhavan–Your Grace; param brahma–as the supreme Brahman, directly the Supreme Lord; param dhama–the supreme Syamasundara form, the supreme refuge; paramam–the supreme; pavitram–anctifier, saviour. sarve–All; rsayah–the sages; deva-rsih naradah–Narada Muni, the saint among the gods; asitah–Asita; devalah–Devala; tatha vyasah–and the great sage Vyasa; ahuh–call; tvam–You; sasvatam purusam–the eternal Personality; divyam–the self-manifest; adi-devam–the original Lord; ajam–the birthless; vibhum–the all-pervading Lord, the fountain-head of all opulences; cha svayam eva–and You, Yourself; bravisi me–are now declaring this to me.
12-13 Arjuna said: O Lord, You are the supreme Brahman, the supreme shelter and the supreme saviour. All the prominent sages such as Devarsi Narada, Asita, Devala and Vyasa have described You as the self-manifest, eternal Supreme Person, the fountain-head of all opulences and the root of all existence from whose divine play everything emanates. And now You are personally declaring this to be the truth.
sarvam etad rtam manye, yan mam vadasi kesava
(he) kesava–O Kesava; (aham) manye–I accept; rtam–as factual; sarvam etat–all; yat vadasi–You have told; mam–me. (he) bhagavan–O Lord; hi–indeed; na devah na danavah–neither the demigods nor the demons; viduh–know; te–Your; vyaktim–personality in full.
14 O Kesava, I fully accept all that You have said. O Lord, indeed neither demigods nor demons know Your personality in full.
svayam evatmanatmanam, vettha tvam purusottama
(he) purusottama–O Supreme Person; (he) bhuta-bhavana–O universal father; (he) bhuta-isa–O Lord of all beings; (he) deva-deva–O God of the gods; (he) jagat-pate–O Jagannatha, Lord of the universe; eva–only; tvam–You; svayam–Yourself; vettha–know; atmanam–Yourself; atmana–by Yourself—by Your own potency.
15 O Supreme Person, universal father, Lord of all beings, God of the gods, Lord of the universe! Only You can know Yourself, by Your own divine potency.
vaktum arhasy asesena, divya hy atma-vibhutayah
hi (tvam) vaktum arhasi–You may kindly describe; asesena–elaborately; (tah)–those; divyah–divine; atma-vibhutayah–personal opulences; yabhih vibhutibhih–by which opulences; tvam–You; tisthasi–are present; vyapya–pervading; iman lokan–all these worlds.
16 Please describe to me in full Your personal opulences by which You pervade all these worlds.
katham vidyam aham yogims, tvam sada parichintayan
(he) yogin–O Lord of Yoga-maya, Lord of divine potency; (he) bhagavan–O Supreme Lord; katham–how can; aham–I; sada–be constantly; parichintayan–absorbed in thought; tvam–of You; vidyam–know; (tvam)–You; cha–and; kesu kesu bhavesu–in which forms; asi–are; (tvam)–You; chintyah–to be thought of; maya–by me?
17 O Lord of divine potency, how can I be constantly absorbed in thought of You, how can I know You, and in which forms should I think of You?
vistarenatmano yogam, vibhutim cha janardana
(he) janardana–O Janardana; kathaya–please describe; bhuyah–again; vistarena–in detail; atmanah yogam–the process of devotional union with You (bhakti-yoga); vibhutim cha–and Your opulences; hi–since; srnvatah–hearing; amrtam–Your ambrosial words; me–my; trptih–satiation; na asti–does not occur.
18 O Janardana, please again describe in detail Your opulences and the path of devotion for You, for I never tire of hearing Your ambrosial words.
sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: hanta kuru-srestha–O best of the Kurus; kathayisyami–I will tell; te–you; pradhanyatah–the principal; divyah–transcendental; atma-vibhutayah–personal opulences, manifest by My divine potency; hi–since; na asti–there is no; antah–end; vistarasya me–to the expanse of My glories.
19 The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, best of the Kurus, My glories are unlimited, so I shall tell you of My principal transcendental opulences, manifest in this world by My divine potency.
aham atma gudakesa, sarva-bhutasaya-sthitah
(he) gudakesa–O Arjuna; aham atma–I am the Supersoul; sarva-bhuta-asaya-sthitah–situated within the heart of all beings; cha eva–and; aham adih–I am the beginning; madhyam cha–middle; antah cha–and end; bhutanam–of all beings.
20 O conqueror of sleep, I am the Supersoul within the hearts of all beings, and I am their beginning, middle and end.
adityanam aham visnur, jyotisam ravir amsuman
adityanam–Of the twelve Adityas; aham asmi visnuh–I am the Aditya known as Visnu. jyotisam–Of the luminaries; aham (asmi)–I am; amsuman–the blazing; ravih–sun; marutam–Of the Vayu demigods; marichih–(I am) the Vayu known as Marichi; naksatranam–and of the stars; sasi–(I am) the moon.
21 Of the twelve Adityas I am Visnu; of the luminaries I am the radiant sun; of the Vayus I am Marichi, of stars I am the moon.
vedanam sama-vedo 'smi, devanam asmi vasavah
vedanam–Of the Vedas; (aham) asmi–I am; sama-vedah–the Sama-veda. devanam–Of the demigods; (aham) asmi–I am; vasavah–Indra. indriyanam–Of the senses; (aham) asmi–I am; manah–the mind; cha–and; (aham) asmi–I am; chetana–the life; bhutanam–of all that lives.
22 Of the Vedas, I am Sama-veda; of the demigods I am Indra; of the senses I am the mind, and I am the life of all that lives.
rudranam sankaras chasmi, vitteso yaksa-raksasam
rudranam–Of the eleven Rudras; aham asmi–I am; sankarah–Siva; cha–and; yaksaraks asam–of the Yaksas and Raksasas; (aham) asmi–I am; vitta-isah–Kubera. vasunam–Of the eight Vasus; pavakah–(I am) Agni; cha–and; sikharinam–of the mountains; meruh–(I am) Sumeru.
23 Of the eleven Rudras I am Sankara, and of the Yaksas and Raksasas I am Kubera. Of the eight Vasus I am Agni, and of mountains I am Sumeru.
purodhasam cha mukhyam mam, viddhi partha brhaspatim
(he) partha–O Partha; viddhi–know; mam–Me; brhaspatim–as Brhaspati; mukhyam purodhasam–the chief among priests engaged in sacrifice. senaninam–Of generals; aham asmi–I am; skandah–Kartikeya; cha–and; sarasam–among reservoirs; sagarah–(I am) the ocean.
24 O Partha, you should know Me as the chief of priests, Brhaspati; of generals I am Kartikeya, and of reservoirs I am the ocean.
maharsinam bhrgur aham, giram asmy ekam aksaram
maha-rsinam–Of great sages; aham asmi–I am; bhrguh–Bhrgu. giram–Of sound vibrations; (aham) asmi–I am; ekam aksaram–the pranava monosyllable, Omkara. yajnanam–Of all types of sacrifices; (aham) asmi–I am; japa-yajnah–sacrifice in the form of meditative chanting of the holy names; (cha)–and; sthavaranam–of the immovable; himalayah–(I am) the Himalayas.
25 Of great sages, I am Bhrgu; of sound vibrations, I am Om; of all sacrifices, I am the chanting of the holy names; and of the immovable, I am the Himalayas.
asvatthah sarva-vrksanam, devarsinam cha naradah
sarva-vrksanam–Of all trees; asvatthah–(I am) the Asvattha tree; deva-rsinam–of godly sages; naradah–(I am) Narada Muni. gandharvanam–Of Gandharvas; chitrarathah–( I am) Chitraratha; cha–and; siddhanam–of perfected beings; kapilah munih–(I am) the sage Kapila.
26 I am the Asvattha among trees, Narada of godly sages, Chitraratha of heavenly singers, and Kapila Muni of perfected beings.
uchchaihsravasam asvanam, viddhi mam amrtodbhavam
asvanam–Of horses; viddhi–know; mam uchchaih-sravasam–Me as Uchchaihsrava; amrta-udbhavam–who was born of the churning of nectar; gaja-indranam–Of elephants; airavatam–(I am) Airavata; cha–and; naranam–among men; nara-adhipam–(I am) the king.
27 Among horses know Me as Uchchaihsrava, who was born of nectar; know Me as Airavata among elephants, and king among men.
ayudhanam aham vajram, dhenunam asmi kamadhuk
ayudhanam–Of weapons; aham asmi–I am; vajram–the thunderbolt, the weapon of Lord Indra. dhenunam–Of cows; (aham) asmi–I am; kama-dhuk–the desire-fulfilling cow. (kandarpanam)–Of cupids; (aham) asmi–I am; prajanah–the progenitor; kandarpah–Cupid; cha–and; sarpanam–of single-headed venomous snakes; vasukih–(I am) Vasuki, the king of snakes.
28 Of weapons I am the thunderbolt, and of cows I am the heavenly desire-fulfilling cow. Of cupids I am the progenitor, and of one-headed venomous snakes I am Vasuki, the king of snakes.
anantas chasmi naganam, varuno yadasam aham
naganam–Of the multi-headed non-poisonous serpents; aham asmi–I am; anantah–the divine serpent Ananta; cha–and; yadasam–of aquatics; aham asmi–I am; varunah–Varunadeva. pit'nam–Of the deified ancestors; aryama–(I am) Aryama; cha–and; sam-yamatam–among chastisers; yamah–Yamaraja.
29 Of the multi-headed non-poisonous serpents I am the Ananta-naga, and of aquatics I am Varunadeva. Of the deified ancestors I am Aryama, and of ministers I am Yamaraja, the lord of punishment.
prahladas chasmi daityanam, kalah kalayatam aham
daityanam–Of the descendents of Diti; aham asmi–I am; prahladah–Prahlada; kalayatam cha–and of subduers; aham (asmi)–I am; kalah–time; cha–and; mrganam–of animals; mrga-indrah–the lion; cha–and; paksinam–of birds; vainateyah–Garuda.
30 Of the Daityas I am Prahlada, and of subjugators I am time. Of animals I am the lion, and of birds I am Garuda.
pavanah pavatam asmi, ramah sastra-bhrtam aham
pavatam–Of sanctifiers or of the rapid; aham asmi–I am; pavanah–wind. sastrabhr tam–Of weapon-wielding heroes; (aham) asmi–I am; ramah–Lord Parasurama. jhasanam–Among fish; (aham) asmi–I am; makarah–the shark; cha–and; srotasam–of rivers; jahnavi–(I am) the Jahnavi, the Ganges.
31 Of sanctifiers I am the wind; of weapon-wielding heros I am Lord Parasurama; among fish I am the shark, and of rivers I am the Ganges.
sarganam adir antas cha, madhyam chaivaham arjuna
(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; sarganam–of the manifest; aham eva adih–I am the beginning; antah–end; madhyam cha–and middle. vidyanam–Of knowledge; adhyatmavidya–( I am) self-knowledge; cha–and; aham vadah–I am the philosophy; pravadatam–of philosophers.
32 O Arjuna, of all that is manifest I am the beginning, middle and end. Of all wisdom I am self-knowledge, and I am the philosophy of philosophers.
aksaranam akaro 'smi, dvandvah samasikasya cha
aksaranam–Of letters; aham asmi–I am; a-karah–the letter 'a'; cha–and; samasikasya–of compound words; dvandvah–(I am) the dual compound word. aham eva aksayah kalah–I alone am the eternal time flow; (srastram cha)–and of creators; visvatah mukhah–four-headed; dhata–Lord Brahma.
33 Of the primary letters of the alphabet I am the letter 'a,' and of compound words I am the dual. I alone am the endless flow of time, and of universal creators I am the four-headed Lord Brahma.
mrtyuh sarva-haras chaham, udbhavas cha bhavisyatam
(harana-karinam)–Of plunderers; aham mrtyuh–I am death; sarva-harah–the vanquisher of all; cha–and; bhavisyatam–of the predestined six transformations of the living beings; udbhavah–(I am) the first, as birth; cha–and; narinam–of feminine qualities; kirtih–fame; srih–beauty; vak–perfect speech; smrtih–rememberance; medha–intelligence (regarding scriptural wisdom); dhrtih–patience; cha–and; ksama–forgiveness (or the seven wives of Dharma).
34 Of plunderers I am all-devouring death, and of the predestined six transformations I am birth, the foremost. Of the feminine qualities I am fame, beauty, perfect speech, remembrance, intelligence, patience and forgiveness—the seven wives of Dharma.
brhat-sama tatha samnam, gayatri chhandasam aham
samnam–Of all the mantras in the Sama-veda; brhat-sama–(I am) the mantra prayer to Lord Indra; tatha–and; chhandasam–of metrical mantras; aham gayatri–I am the Gayatri mantra. masanam–Of the months; aham marga-sirsah–I am the month Agrahayana, the month of harvest (mid-November to mid-December). (cha)–And; rtunam–of the seasons; kusuma-akarah–(I am) spring.
35 Of all the mantras in the Sama-veda I am the Brhatsama prayer to Lord Indra, and of metrical mantras I am the holy Gayatri mantra. Of the months I am the foremost, Agrahayana, and of the seasons I am flower-bearing spring.
dyutam chalayatam asmi, tejas tejasvinam aham
chhalayatam–Of cheats; aham asmi–I am; dyutam–gambling. tejasvinam–Of the splendid; aham asmi–I am; tejah–splendour. asmi–(I) am; jayah–victory; vyavasayah–perseverance; (cha)–and; sattvam–the power of truth; sattva-vatam–of the truthful.
36 I am the gambling of cheats, and the glory of the glorious. I am victory, I am perseverance, and I am the power of truth of the honest.
vrsninam vasudevo 'smi, pandavanam dhananjayah
vrsninam–Of the Yadavas; aham asmi–I am; vasudevah–Vasudeva; pandavanam–of the Pandavas; dhananjayah–Arjuna; muninam–of the sages; vyasah–Vyasadeva; api–and; kavinam–of knowers of the scriptures; usanah kavih–Pandita Sukracharya.
37 Of the Yadavas I am Vasudeva, of the Pandavas I am Arjuna, of the sages I am Vyasadeva, and of knowers of the scriptures I am Sukracharya.
dando damayatam asmi, nitir asmi jigisatam
damayatam–Of law enforcers; aham asmi–I am; dandah–punishment. jigisatam–Of those desiring to conquer; (aham) asmi–I am; nitih–political wisdom. guhyanam–Of all secrets; (aham) asmi–I am; maunam–silence; cha–and; jnana-vatam–of the learned; jnanam eva–(I am) knowledge.
38 I am the punishment meted out by the enforcers of the law, I am the political wisdom of those desiring to conquer. I am the silence of all secrets, I am the wisdom of the wise.
yach chapi sarva-bhutanam, bijam tad aham arjuna
(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; cha–and; yat–whatever is; bijam–the seed; sarva-bhutanam–of all beings; aham tat api–I am that. yat tat syat–Whatever may exist; chara-acharam–moving and stationary; na asti–there is no; bhutam–existence; maya vina–without Me.
39 O Arjuna, whatever is considered the origin of all beings, I am that. Nothing, whether stationary or moving, can exist without Me.
nanto 'sti mama divyanam, vibhutinam parantapa
(he) parantapa–O chastiser of the enemy; na asti–there is no; antah–end; mama divyanam vibhutinam–of My divine opulences; esah tu–so; uddesatah–an indication; vistarah–of the expanse; vibhuteh–of these opulences; proktah–has been mentioned; maya–by Me.
40 O conqueror of the enemy, My divine glories have no end. I have given you but an indication of them.
yad yad vibhutimat sattvam, srimad urjitam eva va
yat yat eva–Of each and every; vibhutimat–magnificent; srimat–beautiful; va–or; urjitam–glorious; sattvam–existence; tvam–you; ava-gachchha eva–should know; tat tat–each of them; amsa-sambhavam–as born of a portion; mama tejah–of My power.
41 Know for certain that whatever is magnificent, beautiful or glorious is born of but a fraction of My power.
athava bahunaitena, kim jnatena tavarjuna
(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; athava–however; tava kim–what is your need; jnatena–of knowing; etena–this; bahuna–elaborately? vistabhya–Supporting; idam–this; krtsnam–entire; jagat–universe; aham sthitah–I am situated; eka-amsena–in My fractional expansion as the Supersoul of material nature—Maha-Visnu or Karanarnavasayi Visnu.
42 But, O Arjuna, what is the need of elaborating further on My opulences? I support this entire universe in My fractional expansion as the Supersoul of material nature.
iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
End of Chapter Ten,
The Divine Glories of the Lord,
from the conversation of Sri Krishna and Arjuna
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