SRIMAD BHAGAVAD-GITA: CHAPTER EIGHTEEN
The Path of Liberation
arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) maha-baho–O mighty hero; (he) hrsikesa–O Lord of all senses; (he) kesinisudana–O slayer of the Kesi demon; ichchami–I wish; veditum–to understand; tattvam–the subject; sannyasasya–of renunciation; tyagasya cha–and detachment; prthak–separately.
1 Arjuna said: O almighty Lord, slayer of the demon Kesi, I wish to understand the subject of renunciation (sannyasa) and detachment (tyaga), separately.
sri-bhagavan uvacha–The Supreme Lord said: kavayah–the learned; vichaksanah–enlightened personalities; viduh–know; nyasam–renunciation; karmanam–of actions; kamyanam–that are motivated by fruitive desires; sannyasam–as sannyasa, renunciation; prahuh–and they say that; sarva-karma-phala-tyagam–the renunciation of the fruits of all actions, whether daily, incidental, or fruitive; tyagam–is detachment.
2 The Supreme Lord said: Learned, enlightened persons know the giving up of fruitive action as renunciation, and the giving up of the fruits of all action as detachment.
tyajyam dosavad ity eke, karma prahur manisinah
eke manisinah–Some scholars (generally the Sankhyas); prahuh–declare that; karma–action; tyajyam–should be given up; dosavat iti–as imperfect (due to violence, etc.); apare cha–and others (generally the Mimamsakas); iti (prahuh)–say that; yajna-danatapah-karma–(scripturally enjoined) action of the nature of sacrifice, charity and austerity; na tyajyam–should not be abandoned.
3 Some philosophers hold that action should be renounced as imperfect. Others hold that action of the nature of sacrifice, charity and austerity should never be given up.
nischayam srnu me tatra, tyage bharata-sattama
(he) bharata-sattama–O best of the Bharatas; srnu–hear; me–My; nischayam–perfect conclusion; tatra tyage–concerning tyaga, detachment, or the quality of renunciation; hi–since; (he) purusa-vyaghra–O best of men; tyagah–the quality of renunciation; sampraki rtitah–has been clearly described (in the scriptures); tri-vidhah–to be of three types.
4 O best of the Bharatas, hear My perfect conclusion concerning detachment, the quality of renunciation, since, O best of men, it has been clearly established that the quality of renunciation is of three types.
yajna-dana-tapah-karma, na tyajyam karyam eva tat
yajna-dana-tapah-karma–Duties of sacrifice, charity and austerity, etc.; na tyajyam–should not be given up. tat–They; eva–certainly; karyam–must be performed; (yatah)–because; yajnah–sacrifice; danam–charity; tapah cha–and austerity; (bhavanti)–are; pavanani eva–the purifiers; manisinam–of the wise.
5 Actions of the nature of sacrifice, charity and austerity should never be abandoned. They must be performed for they are the purifiers of the wise.
etany api tu karmani, sangam tyaktva phalani cha
(he) partha–O son of Kunti; api tu–but even; etani–these; karmani–actions; kartavyani–must be performed; tyaktva–renouncing; sangam–attachment; phalani cha–and desire for the results. iti–This is; me–My; nischitam–definite; uttamam–supreme; matam–perfect conclusion (siddhanta).
6 But even these actions must be performed abandoning attachment and fruitive desire. O Partha, know this to be My perfect, supreme conclusion.
niyatasya tu sannyasah, karmano nopapadyate
tu–But; sannyasah–renunciation; niyatasya–of obligatory; karmanah–duties; na upapadyate–cannot be justified. parityagah–Abandonment; tasya–of those duties; mohat–out of delusion; parikirtitah–is called; tamasah–renunciation of the nature of ignorance.
7 Renunciation of one's obligatory duties is wrong. The delusion of giving up these duties is called false renunciation, or renunciation of the nature of ignorance.
duhkham ity eva yat karma, kaya-klesa-bhayat tyajet
(yah)–That person who; iti (matva)–thinks that; yat karma–such obligatory duties; duhkham eva–are troublesome; tyajet–and renounces them; kaya-klesa-bhayat–out of fear of physical discomfort; sah–that person; krtva–by performing; tyagam–renunciation; rajasam–of the nature of passion; na labhet eva–cannot attain; tyaga-phalam–the fruit of detachment—enlightenment.
8 One who abandons his obligatory duties out of fear of physical discomfort, considering them troublesome, performs renunciation of the nature of passion. Thus, he does not attain the fruit of true detachment.
karyam ity eva yat karma, niyatam kriyate 'rjuna
(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; niyatam–obligatory; karma–duties; yat–which; kriyate–are performed; karyam iti eva–as a matter of duty; tyaktva–abandoning; sangam–attachment; phalam eva cha–and fruitive desire; sah tyagah sattvikah–constitute renunciation of the nature of goodness; (me) matah–in My consideration.
9 O Arjuna, performance of obligatory works as a matter of duty while abandoning attachment and fruitive desire, is renunciation of the nature of goodness. This is My opinion.
na dvesty akusalam karma, kusale nanusajjate
medhavi–The wise; tyagi–renunciate; sattva-samavistah–absorbed in the nature of goodness; chhinna-samsayah–having slashed all doubts; na dvesti–neither resents; akusalam–troublesome; karma–duties; na anusajjate–nor is attached to; kusale–duties which bestow happiness.
10 The wise renunciate who is absorbed in the nature of goodness, and who has slashed all doubts, neither resents disagreeable duties nor is attached to agreeable works.
na hi deha-bhrta sakyam, tyaktum karmany asesatah
deha-bhrta–The embodied soul; na sakyam hi–can never; asesatah–fully; tyaktum–renounce; karmani–actions; tu–however; abhidhiyate–it is said; iti–that; yah sah karma-phala-tyagi–one who renounces the fruits of action; tyagi–is a renunciate.
11 It is not possible for the embodied soul to fully renounce actions. However, one who renounces the fruits of his actions is a true renunciate.
anistam istam misram cha, tri-vidham karmanah phalam
tri-vidham phalam (iti)–These three kinds of fruits; karmanah–of action; bhavati–remain; pretya–after death; atyaginam–for those who desire material enjoyment: anistam–undesirable (low or hellish birth); istam–desirable (high or godly birth); misram cha–and mixed (human birth); tu–but; na (bhavati)–these fruits do not ensue; kvachit–at any time; sannyasinam–for those who are sannyasi, renounced.
12 After death, the three kinds of fruits of actions—good, bad and mixed—accrue to those who have worldly desires, but never to those who are renounced.
panchaitani maha-baho, karanani nibodha me
(he) maha-baho–O mighty hero; nibodha–know; me–from Me; etani–these; pancha–five; karanani–causes; siddhaye–of the accomplishment; sarva-karmanam–of all actions; proktani–described; krtante–in the conclusive knowledge of action; sankhye–in the Vedanta scripture.
13 O mighty hero, know from Me of the five causes of the accomplishment of all actions as described in the conclusive teachings of the scripture known as Sankhya or Vedanta:
adhisthanam tatha karta, karanam cha prthag-vidham
adhistanam–(1) The basis, the body; tatha–and; karta–(2) the 'doer', the ego of the knot of spirit and matter; prthak-vidham–(3) the separate, various; karanam cha–senses—eyes, ears, etc., as the instrument; vividhah–(4) the various; prthak cha–and separate; chesta–endeavours or functions of the vital airs; atra panchamam–and the fifth factor; daivam eva cha–(5) is the Divine, the Supersoul.
14 (All actions are accomplished by these five causes:) The body, the performer (ego, a knot of spirit and matter), the instrument (the senses), the various endeavours, and the Divine (the Supersoul).
sarira-vanmanobhir yat, karma prarabhate narah
yat karma–Whatever action; narah–a man; prarabhate–performs; sarira-vak-manobhih–with his body, speech and mind; nyayam va–whether lawful; viparitam va–or unlawful; ete pancha–these five; tasya–are its; hetavah–causes.
15 Whether lawful or unlawful, whatever action a man performs with his body, mind or speech, is caused by these five elements.
tatraivam sati kartaram, atmanam kevalam tu yah
tatra–In this respect; evam sati tu–despite this; yah–whoever; pasyati–sees; kevalam–only; atmanam–the living being; kartaram–as the doer; sah durmatih–that ignorant person; akrta-buddhitvat–due to impure intelligence; na pasyati–does not see.
16 But an ignorant person who sees only himself as the doer does not actually see, due to his impure intelligence.
yasya nahankrto bhavo, buddhir yasya na lipyate
yasya–He within whom; bhavah–the mentality; ahankrtah–of considering oneself a doer; na–does not occur; yasya–and he whose; buddhih–intelligence; na lipyate–is not attached to the fruits of actions; sah–such a person; hatva api–even if he kills; iman lokan–the entire world; na hanti–he neither kills anyone; na nibadhyate–nor is he bound by action.
17 He who is free from egoism (aversion to the Absolute), and whose intelligence is not implicated in worldly action—even if he kills the entire world, he neither kills nor is he bound by action.
jnanam jneyam parijnata, tri-vidha karma-chodana
tri-vidha iti–These three are; karma-chodana–the driving force of action: jnanam–knowledge; jneyam–the knowable; parijnata–the knower. tri-vidhah (iti)–These three are; karma-sangrahah–the constitution of action: karanam–the instrument, the senses; or the practice to attain the objective (sadhana); karma–the action; karta–the performer.
18 These three are the driving force of action: knowledge, the knowable and the knower. These three are the constitution of action-the instrument, the action and the performer.
jnanam karma cha karta cha, tridhaiva guna-bhedatah
guna-sankhyane–In the Sankhya scripture; jnanam–knowledge; karma cha–action; karta cha–and the performer; (ete) prochyate–are mentioned; tri-dha eva–in three divisions; guna-bhedatah–according to the three modes of material nature. srnu–now hear; tani api–of these, too; yathavat–as it is.
19 In the Sankhya scripture, knowledge, action and the performer have each been classified according to the three modes of material nature. Now hear of these from Me:
sarva-bhutesu yenaikam, bhavam avyayam iksate
viddhi–You should know; tat jnanam–that knowledge; yena–by which; ekam–one; avibhaktam–undivided; avyayam–imperishable; bhavam–nature; iksate–is seen; vibhaktes u sarva-bhutesu–within all the diverse living beings; sattvikam–as knowledge of the nature of goodness.
20 That knowledge by which the one imperishable and undivided principle (My superior divine potency) is seen to be present in all the diverse living beings is to be known as knowledge of the nature of goodness.
prthaktvena tu yaj jnanam, nana-bhavan-prthag-vidhan
yat jnanam–That knowledge by which; vetti–one experiences; sarvesu–within all; bhutesu–living beings; prthaktvena–separately; nana-bhavan–many natures; prthakvidhan–engaged in many pursuits; viddhi–know; tat jnanam tu–that knowledge; rajasam–to be of the nature of passion.
21 That knowledge in which one experiences in the plane of living beings many separate (independent) entities engaged in many separate (clashing) pursuits is to be known as knowledge of the nature of passion.
yat tu krtsnavad ekasmin, karye saktam ahaitukam
tat–That; yat tu–which; saktam–is attached; ekasmin karye–to the peripheral only, such as the body; krtsnavat–as everything; ahaitukam–(and which is) irrational; atattvaarthavat–not seeking the truth—without spiritual or scriptural conception; alpam cha–and trivial; udahrtam–is said to be; tamasam–knowledge of the nature of ignorance.
22 And that ideology which is stubbornly attached to the peripheral only, considering it to be all in all, without spiritual or scriptural conception, without seeking the truth, and based on trivialities alone, is said to be knowledge of the (animalistic) nature of ignorance.
niyatam sanga-rahitam, araga-dvesatah krtam
tat karma yat–That action which is; niyatam–constantly; krtam–performed; sangarahitam–without attachment; aphala-prepsuna–by a person without fruitive desire; araga-dvesatah–unbiased by likes and dislikes; uchyate–is called; sattvikam–action of the nature of goodness.
23 That obligatory action which is faithfully executed without attachment by a person who does not seek its rewards and who is unbiased by likes and dislikes, is said to be action of the nature of goodness.
yat tu kamepsuna karma, sahankarena va punah
punah–Again; tat karma yat tu–that action which is; kriyate–performed; kama-ipsuna–by one desiring the result; va–or; sa-ahankarena–by an egotistic person; bahula-ayasam–with great endeavour; udahrtam–is said to be; rajasam–of the nature of passion.
24 And that action which is performed with great endeavour by an egotistic person desiring its fruits, is said to be action of the nature of passion.
anubandham ksayam himsam, anapeksya cha paurusam
tat karma yat–That action which; arabhyate–is undertaken; mohat–due to delusion; anapeksya–without considering; anubandham–consequence; ksayam–loss; himsam–harm to others; paurusam cha–and one's capability of performing it; uchyate–is called; tamasam–action of the nature of ignorance.
25 And that work which is undertaken out of delusion, without consideration for its consequences, its loss, harm to others and one's capability of performing it, is called action of the nature of ignorance.
mukta-sango 'nahamvadi, dhrty-utsaha-samanvitah
mukta-sangah–Unattached; anaham-vadi–without ego; dhrti-utsaha-samanvitah–patient, enthusiastic; karta–the worker; nirvikarah–who is unaffected; siddhi-asiddhyoh–in success or failure; uchyate–is called; sattvikah–a worker of the nature of goodness.
26 The worker who is unattached, without ego, patient, enthusiastic and unaffected in success or failure, is known as a worker of the nature of goodness.
ragi karma-phala-prepsur, lubdho himsatmako 'suchih
ragi–The attached; karma-phala-prepsuh–desirer of the fruits of action; lubdhah–covetous; himsa-atmakah–cruel-natured; karta–worker; asuchih–engaged in unscriptural or abominable practices; harsa-soka-anvitah–and always subject to joy and sorrow; parikirtitah–is called; rajasah–a worker of the nature of passion.
27 The worker who is attached, desirous of the fruits of action, covetous, cruel, engaged in abominable practices not sanctioned by the scriptures and always subject to joy and sorrow, is known as a worker of the nature of passion.
ayuktah prakrtah stabdhah, satho naiskrtiko 'lasah
ayuktah–The uncontrolled; prakrtah–vulgar; stabdhah–stubbornly arrogant; sathah–deceitful; naiskrtikah–offensive; alasah–lazy; visadi–despondent; dirgha-sutri cha–procrastinating; karta–worker; uchyate–is called; tamasah–a worker of the nature of ignorance.
28 The worker who is uncontrolled, vulgar, arrogant, deceitful, offensive, lazy, despondent and a procrastinator is known as a worker of the nature of ignorance.
buddher bhedam dhrtes chaiva, gunatas tri-vidham srnu
(he) dhananjaya–O Arjuna; srnu–hear; prochyamanam–as I describe; asesena–fully; prthaktvena–and distinctly; tri-vidham bhedam–the three types; buddheh–of intelligence; dhrteh cha eva–and determination; gunatah–according to the modes of nature.
29 O Dhananjaya, now listen attentively. I shall clearly describe the three types of intelligence and determination, according to the modes of nature:
pravrttim cha nivrttim cha, karyakarye bhayabhaye
(he) partha–O son of Kunti; sattviki buddhih–intelligence of the nature of goodness; sa ya–is that which; vetti–distinguishes; pravrttim cha–virtuous engagement; nivrttim cha–and abstinence from vice; karya-akarye–duty and non-duty; bhaya-abhaye–danger and safety; bandham moksam cha–and bondage and liberation.
30 O Partha, intelligence of the nature of goodness is that which can distinguish (virtuous) engagement and abstinence (from vice), duty and non-duty, danger and safety, and bondage and liberation.
yaya dharmam adharmam cha, karyam chakaryam eva cha
(he) partha–O Partha; rajasi buddhih–intelligence of the nature of passion; sa yaya–is that by which; dharmam–religion; adharmam cha–and irreligion; karyam cha–and duty; akaryam eva cha–and non-duty; prajanati ayathavat–are misunderstood.
31 O Partha, intelligence of the nature of passion is that which causes an erroneous perception of religion, irreligion, duty and non-duty.
adharmam dharmam iti ya, manyate tamasavrta
(he) partha–O Partha; tamasi buddhih–intelligence of the nature of ignorance; avrta–covered; tamasa–by the mode of ignorance; sa ya–is that which; manyate–considers; adharmam–vice; dharmam–virtue; sarva-arthan cha–and all knowable objects; viparitan iti–contrary to what they are.
32 Intelligence of the nature of ignorance is covered by illusion, whereby vice is considered virtue, and everything is taken to be the opposite of the reality.
dhrtya yaya dharayate, manah-pranendriya-kriyah
(he) partha–O Partha; yaya avyabhicharinya dhrtya–that unwavering determination which; yogena–with single-minded concentration; dharayate–controls; manah-prana-indriya-kriyah–the functions of the mind, life forces and senses; sa dhrtih sattviki–is determination of the nature of goodness.
33 O Partha, determination of the nature of goodness is that determination which unfailingly and with singleminded concentration controls the functions of the mind, the life-airs and the senses.
yaya tu dharma-kamarthan, dhrtya dharayate 'rjuna
tu–But; (he) partha arjuna–O Partha, Arjuna; yaya dhrtya–determination by which; dharma-kama-arthan–religiosity, desire and wealth; dharayate–are held (pradhanyena)–foremost; prasangena–by the contact of which; (bhavati)–one becomes; phala-akanksi–desirous of their fruits; sa dhrtih–that determination; rajasi–is of the nature of passion.
34 O Partha, O Arjuna, determination of the nature of passion is that fruitive, attached determination which adheres to religiosity for the purpose of amassing wealth to fulfill mundane desires.
yaya svapnam bhayam sokam, visadam madam eva cha
sa dhrtih–That determination; yaya–by which; durmedhah–a foolish person; na vimunchati–never leaves; svapnam–sleep; bhayam–fear; sokam–sorrow; visadam–depression; madam eva cha–pride, arrogance; mata–is considered; tamasi–determination of the nature of ignorance.
35 Determination of the nature of ignorance is that by which a foolish person does not give up sleep, fear, sorrow, depression and arrogance.
sukham tv idanim tri-vidham, srnu me bharatarsabha
(he) bharatarsabha–O best of the Bharatas; idanim tu–now; srnu–hear; me–from Me; tri-vidham sukham–about the three kinds of happiness: yatra–that in which; ramate–one delights; abhyasat–through his practices; nigachchhati cha–and attains; duhkha-antam–the cessation of unhappiness; yat tat–and that which; agre–initially; visam iva–is like poison; pariname–and subsequently; amrta-upamam–like nectar; tat sukham–such happiness; atma-buddhi-prasada-jam–born of the purity of selfrealization; proktam–is called; sattvikam–happiness of the nature of goodness.
36-37 O Bharatarsabha, now hear from Me about the three kinds of happiness: That state in which one is joyful through his practices while attaining the cessation of all unhappiness, and which in the beginning is like poison but ultimately like nectar, and which is born of the purity of self-realization—that happiness is said to be of the nature of goodness.
visayendriya-samyogad, yat tad agre 'mrtopamam
tat yat–That which; (jayate)–is born; visaya-indriya-samyogat–from the contact of the senses with their objects; agre–and in the beginning; amrta-upamam–is like nectar; pariname–and subsequently; visam iva–like poison; tat sukham–that happiness; smrtam–is called; rajasam–happiness of the nature of passion.
38 That happiness which is born of the contact of the senses with their objects, and which is like nectar in the beginning but poison in the end, is said to be happiness of the nature of passion.
yad agre chanubandhe cha, sukham mohanam atmanah
nidra-alasya-pramada-uttham–Born of sleep, laziness and illusion; yat sukham–that happiness which; agre cha–in the beginning; anubandhe cha–and in the end; atmanah mohanam–is self-deception; tat–such happiness; udahrtam–is called; tamasam–happiness of the nature of ignorance.
39 That happiness which is self-deception from beginning to end, and which arises from sleep, laziness and illusion, is called happiness of the nature of ignorance.
na tad asti prthivyam va, divi devesu va punah
prthivyam va–Either on earth; (manusyadisu)–amongst the humans, etc.; va punah–or again; divi–in the heavenly plane; devesu–amongst the demigods; na asti–there is no; tat sattvam–such entity; yat–which; muktam syat–can be free; ebhih tribhih gunaih–from these three modes; prakrti-jaih–born of material nature.
40 Amongst all species on earth including the humans or amongst even the celestial gods in the heavenly plane, there is no entity that can be free from these three modes which are born of material nature.
brahmana-ksatriya-visam, sudranam cha parantapa
(he) parantapa–O vanquisher of the enemy; karmani–the duties; brahmana-ksatriyavisam–of the brahmana, ksatriya and vaisya; sudranam cha–and sudra sections; pravibhaktani–are appropriately classified; gunaih–according to the qualities of goodness, passion and ignorance; svabhava-prabhavaih–born of their natures.
41 O Parantapa, according to their natures, the duties of the brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas and sudras are appropriately classified.
samo damas tapah saucham, ksantir arjavam eva cha
(etani)–All these; (bhavati)–are; svabhava-jam–the natural; brahma-karma–duties of the brahmanas: samah–internal sense-control; damah–external sense-control; tapah–austerity; saucham–external and internal purity; ksantih–forbearance; arjavam eva cha–straightforwardness; jnanam–scriptural knowledge; vijnanam–realization of essential truth; astikyam–theistic mentality or firm faith in the teachings of the scriptures.
42 Internal and external sense-control, austerity, purity, forbearance, straightforwardness, knowledge, realization and theistic mentality-these are the natural duties of the brahmanas.
sauryam tejo dhrtir daksyam, yuddhe chapy apalayanam
(etani)–All these; (bhavati)–are; svabhava-jam–the natural; ksatram karma–duties of the ksatriyas: sauryam–prowess; tejah–valour; dhrtih–endurance; daksyam–dexterity; apalayanam–never retreating; yuddhe cha api–in battle; danam–generosity; isvarabhavah cha–and regality.
43 Prowess, valour, endurance, dexterity, never retreating in battle, generosity and regality—these are the characteristic duties of the ksatriyas.
krsi-goraksya-vanijyam, vaisya-karma svabhava-jam
(etani)–All these; (bhavati)–are; svabhava-jam–the natural; vaisya-karma–functions of the vaisyas: krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam–agriculture, cow protection and trade. karma api–The duty; paricharya-atmakam–of service to the brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaisyas; svabhava-jam–is natural; sudrasya–for the sudra section.
44 Agriculture, cow protection and trade are the natural work of the vaisyas; and natural to the sudras is service to the brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaisyas (assisting them in their various works).
sve sve karmany abhiratah, samsiddhim labhate narah
narah–The man; abhiratah–devoted; sve sve karmani–to his own appropriate duty; labhate–attains; samsiddhim–perfection in self-knowledge. srnu tat–Now hear; yatha–how; sva-karma-niratah–one dedicated to executing his prescribed duty; vindati–attains; siddhim–perfection.
45 One who devotes himself to his own duty attains perfection in self-knowledge. Now hear from Me how a person attains perfection through devotion to his own duty:
yatah pravrttir bhutanam, yena sarvam idam tatam
manavah–A man; vindati–attains; siddhim–perfection; abhyarchya–by worshipping; sva-karmana–through his appropiate, prescribed duty; tam–that Supreme Lord; yatah–from whom occurs; pravrttih–the manifestation or impetus; bhutanam–of all living beings; yena–and by whom, individually and collectively; idam–this; sarvam–entire universe; tatam–is pervaded.
46 A man achieves perfection by worshipping, through his prescribed duties, the Supreme Lord from whom all beings originate, by whom all beings are engaged, and who (individually and collectively) pervades the entire universe.
sreyan sva-dharmo vigunah, para-dharmat svanusthitat
sva-dharmah–One's own prescribed duty; vigunah–though imperfect; sreyan–is better; para-dharmat–than another's duties; su-anusthitat–executed well. kurvan–By doing; karma–the duty; svabhava-niyatam–prescribed according to his nature; (manavah)–a man; kilbisam na apnoti–does not incur sin.
47 One's own duty, though imperfect, is better than another's executed well. Sin is never incurred by a man fullfilling the duty prescribed according to his nature.
saha-jam karma kaunteya, sa-dosam api na tyajet
(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; sa-dosam api–although imperfect; karma–action; saha-jam–prescribed according to one's nature; na tyajet–must not be given up; hi–for; sarva-arambhah–all undertakings; avrtah–are covered; dosena–by defects; agnih iva–as fire is covered; dhumena–by smoke.
48 O Kaunteya, even though it may be imperfect, one should not give up the duty prescribed according to his nature. Verily, all action (karma) is (generally) covered by imperfection, as fire is covered by smoke.
asakta-buddhih sarvatra, jitatma vigata-sprhah
asakta-buddhih–One with the wisdom of detachment; sarvatra–from all mundane objects; jita-atma–the self-controlled; vigata-sprhah–person whose desires have gone; adhigachchhati–attains to; paramam naiskarmya-siddhim–the higher state, of transcending all duties; sannyasena–by renouncing the fruits of his actions.
49 One who has the wisdom of detachment from all mundane objects, who is self-controlled and whose desires have gone-such a person attains the perfection of transcending all duties in the world by renouncing the fruits of his actions.
siddhim prapto yatha brahma, tathapnoti nibodha me
(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; yatha–how; siddhim praptah–the person who has achieved the state of transcending all duties; apnoti–attains to; brahma–Brahman, the Absolute; ya para nistha–the ultimate state; jnanasya–of knowledge; tatha nibodha–now understand that; samasena eva–in brief; me–from Me.
50 O Kaunteya, now know from Me in brief how the person who has attained transcendence of all duties reaches the transcendental plane of the Absolute, the ultimate state of knowledge (spiritual awakening):
buddhya visuddhaya yukto, dhrtyatmanam niyamya cha
yuktah (san)–A person possessing; visuddhaya buddhya–intelligence of the nature of goodness; niyamya cha–and controlling; atmanam–the mind; dhrtya–through determination of the nature of goodness; tyaktva–rejecting; visayan–the sense objects; sabdadin–of sound, touch, etc.; vyudasya cha–abandoning; raga-dvesau–attachment and aversion—likes and dislikes; vivikta-sevi–remaining free from the association of materialistic persons; laghu-asi–a temperate eater; yata-vak-kaya-manasah–disciplining the body, mind and speech; nityam–and constantly; dhyana-yoga-parah–absorbed in meditation on the Supreme Lord; vairagyam samupasritah–fully detached from the mundane; vimuchya–giving up; ahankaram–ego—considering oneself 'the doer'; balam–power; darpam–vanity; kamam–desire; krodham–anger; parigraham–possessiveness; santah–being at peace; nirmamah–not thinking of anything as 'mine'; kalpate–is qualified; brahma-bhuyaya–for spiritual realization.
51-53 Endowed with intelligence of the nature of goodness, mentally controlled through determination of the nature of goodness, rejecting the sense objects of sound, touch, form, taste and smell, abandoning attachment and aversion, free from the association of materialistic persons, a temperate eater, disciplining the body, mind and speech, constantly absorbed in thought of the Supreme Lord and fully detached from the mundane world; giving up ego, power, vanity, desire, anger and possessiveness, not thinking of anything as 'mine'; being at peace-such a person is qualified for spiritual realization.
brahma-bhutah prasannatma, na sochati na kanksati
prasanna-atma–The joyful, enlightened soul; brahma-bhutah–who has attained his divine nature; na sochati–neither sorrows; na kanksati–nor desires. samah–Being of equal vision; sarvesu–for all; bhutesu–living beings (considering My superior potency to be in everything); labhate–he attains; param–transcendental; mat-bhaktim–devotion for Me.
54 The joyful-hearted, enlightened soul who has attained his divine nature neither sorrows nor desires. Seeing all beings equally, he comes to attain transcendental loving devotion for Me.
bhaktya mam abhijanati, yavan yas chasmi tattvatah
bhaktya–Through devotion; (sah)–he; abhijanati–can well know; mam–Me; tattvatah–in reality; yavan–as far as being the Master of all opulences; yah cha (aham) asmi–and that which I am. jnatva–Thus knowing Me; tattvatah–in truth; (sah)–he; tatanantaram–thereafter; tatah–by the potency of that devotion; visate–enters; mam–My eternal pastimes (nitya-lila), non-different from Me.
55 Through devotion, he realizes that I am the Lord of all potencies and the Sweet Absolute. Then, realizing his divine relationship with Me, he enters the company of My intimate associates who are non-different from My very Self.
sarva-karmany api sada, kurvano mad-vyapasrayah
api–Although; sada–ever; kurvanah–active; sarva-karmani–in all duties; matvyapasrayah–My surrendered souls; avapnoti–attain; sasvatam–the eternal; avyayam–immutable (flourishing); padam–plane (of service); mat-prasadat–by My grace.
56 Although ever active in all duties, those who have taken refuge in Me attain, by My grace, the eternal, indestructable plane (of service).
chetasa sarva-karmani, mayi sannyasya mat-parah
sannyasya–Offering; chetasa–whole-heartedly; sarva-karmani–all actions; mayi–to Me; mat-parah–keeping Me as the supreme objective; upasritya–and taking refuge; buddhi-yogam–in dedicating your intelligence to Me; bhava–be; satatam–ever; matchittah–devoted to Me.
57 Whole-heartedly offering your every action to Me, keeping Me as the supreme objective and fully dedicating your intelligence to Me (being unattached to worldly action), be ever devoted to Me.
mach-chittah sarva-durgani, mat-prasadat tarisyasi
mach-chittah–Giving your heart to Me; tvam–you; tarisyasi–will cross; sarvadurgan i–all obstacles; mat-prasadat–by My grace. atha chet–Yet, if; ahankarat–out of pride; na srosyasi–you do not heed (My words); (tarhi)–then; vinanksyasi–you will perish.
58 Giving your heart to Me, you will be able to overcome all obstacles by My grace. But if out of pride you do not heed My words, you will perish.
yad ahankaram asritya, na yotsya iti manyase
asritya–Resorting to; ahankaram–pride; yat manyase iti–you are thinking; na yotsya–"I shall not fight"; (esah)–but such; vyavasayah–a decision; te–of yours; (bhavisyati)–will be; mithya eva–only in vain. prakrtih–The nature befitting a ksatriya; niyoksyati–will compel; tvam–you.
59 Out of pride you are thinking, "I shall not fight." But your decision will be in vain, for your nature (as a ksatriya) will compel you to fight.
svabhava-jena kaunteya, nibaddhah svena karmana
(he) kaunteya–O son of Kunti; nibaddhah (san)–being bound; svena–by your; karmana–duty; sva-bhava-jena–born of your nature; tat api–that very action; yat–which; mohat–out of delusion; (tvam)–you; na ichchhasi–do not wish; kartum–to perform; karisyasi–you will do; avasah (san)–inevitably.
60 O Kaunteya, being bound by the duty born of your nature, that very action which out of delusion you are now avoiding will be inevitably executed by you.
isvarah sarva-bhutanam, hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati
(he) arjuna–O Arjuna; sarva-bhutanam–for all beings; isvarah–the Supreme Lord as the Supersoul; tisthati–is situated; hrd-dese–in region of the heart. mayaya–By His illusory potency; sarva-bhutani bhramayan–He causes all beings to revolve (through many existences); yantra-arudhani (iva)–as though riding a carousel.
61 O Arjuna, the Supreme Lord is situated in the hearts of all beings, and by His deluding potency He causes them to revolve (through many existences) like puppets riding a carousel.
tam eva saranam gachchha, sarva-bhavena bharata
(he) bharata–O Bharata; (atah)–therefore; saranam gachchha–surrender; sarvabhavena–whole-heartedly; tam eva–unto Him, alone. tat-prasadat–By His grace; prapsyasi–you will attain; param–the supreme; santim–peace; sasvatam–the eternal; sthanam–abode.
62 O Bharata, whole-heartedly surrender to Him. By His grace you will attain the supreme peace and the eternal abode.
iti te jnanam akhyatam, guhyad guhyataram maya
iti–Up to this point; guhyat–from profound; guhyataram jnanam–to more profound knowledge; akhyatam–has been disclosed; maya–by Me; te–to you. asesena–Fully; vimrsya–considering; etat–that; kuru–do; yatha–as; ichchhasi–you wish; tatha–accordingly.
63 I have now revealed more and more profound teachings to you. Duly consider this, and then do as you wish.
sarva-guhyatamam bhuyah, srnu me paramam vachah
bhuyah–Again; srnu–hear; me–My; paramam–supreme; vachah–teaching. sarva-guhyatamam–most profound of all. (tvam)–You; asi–are; drdham–extremely; istah–dear; me–to Me; iti tatah–so; vaksyami–I am speaking; te–to you; hitam–for your benefit.
64 Now again hear My supreme teaching, the most hidden treasure of all. I tell you this for your benefit as you are most dear to Me.
According to Srila Bhakti Vinoda Thakur (Vidvad-ranjan Commentary 9.1), the wisdom of self-realization in the second and third chapters of Sri Gita are the profound (guhyam) teachings of Lord Sri Krishna. The Lord's descriptions of Himself as the Supreme in the seventh and eighth chapters are more profound (guhyataram), as such knowledge gives birth to devotion. In chapter nine, the most profound (guhyatamam) teachings begin as the Lord describes the symptoms of exclusive devotion (kevala-bhakti).
Because His devotee Arjuna is very dear to Him, the Lord now repeats His secret teaching for Arjuna's benefit. This time, however, He reveals His most hidden of all hidden treasures (sarva-guhyatamam), His most affectionate advice: "Arjuna, you are most dear to Me, so I will now divulge the whole truth to you."
man-mana bhava mad-bhakto, mad-yaji mam namaskuru
bhava–Be; mat-manah–of mind dedicated to Me; mat-bhaktah–devoted to Me; mat-yaji–be My worshipper; namaskuru–and offer obeisance—offer yourself; mam–to Me; (tarhi)–then; eva–certainly; esyasi–you will come; mam–to Me. satyam–Truly; pratijane–I promise this; te–to you; (yatah tvam)–as you; asi–are; priyah–dear; me–to Me.
65 Think of Me always, devote yourself to Me, worship Me and bow to Me, and surely you will come to Me. I promise you this, because you are dear to Me.
sarva-dharman parityajya, mam ekam saranam vraja
parityajya–Totally rejecting; sarva-dharman–all kinds of religion; saranam vraja–take shelter; mam–of Me; ekam–alone. aham–I; moksayisyami–will liberate; tvam–you; sarva-papebhyah–from all kinds of sins; ma suchah–do not despair.
66 Give up all kinds of religion and surrender to Me alone. I will liberate you from all sins, do not despair.
Here, the glory of the hidden purpose in the Bhagavad-gita is sung (gita-gudartha-gauravam): "Give up all engagements and come to Me. You won't have to repent, Arjuna, because I am everything to you, and you are everything to Me. This is the most hidden of all hidden truths. What more can I say? And you will find this in Vraja."
There is a literary ornament in Sanskrit called dhvani, echo, by which a word 'echoes', suggests, an additional meaning. Here, such a hint is given. Mam ekam saranam 'vraja'*: "You may 'go' to 'Vraja', and there you will find the most hidden of all hidden truths (sarva-guhyatamam). The deepest secret of the inner loving heart has been fully revealed there: I am beyond all conceptions of religion, society, friends—everything. My position is above everything, and in the heart of the heart of everything. In the eternal land of Vraja, you will experience the whole conception of beauty. Dismiss all other engagements and prospects, and come to Me alone. Your inner hankering will be fulfilled beyond your expectations. You will find such dignity in Me that you will be beyond reaction and repentance." This is the deepest meaning of the highest glory.
*In the verse, vraja means 'go', and Vraja is also a name of Vrndavana.
If one comes to this conception, everything else will be seen as sin (aham tvam sarva-papebhyo, moksayisyami). Everything conceived of as duty or purity in this material world will be seen as sinful, and all conceptions of religiosity will be reduced to the level of sin. In the absolute plane, everything and everyone belongs wholly to Krishna, and the slightest deviation from this ideal is no better than committing sin. Mere self-forgetfulness leads to impersonalism and culminates in deep slumber. But self-forgetfulness (sarva-dharman parityajya) in Krishna's service (mam ekam saranam vraja) is positive and living. It is the full, absolute plane of life.
The hidden treasure attracts our hearts. We have been deprived of our heart's deepest interest. Though we have a natural claim to it, it has been hidden from us (srutibhir vimrgyam). In an unparalleled way, Sri Gita considers all these aspects and directs us to the correct meaning and conclusion of all the Upanisads. From this point, the Srimad Bhagavatam begins.
idam te natapaskaya, nabhaktaya kadachana
te–You; kadachana na vachyam–should never disclose; idam–this; atapaskaya–to one devoid of self-sacrifice; na abhaktaya–nor to a non-devotee; asusrusave na cha–nor to one who is averse to My service; yah na cha–nor to one who; abhyasuyati–is resentful; mam–towards Me.
67 You should never disclose this hidden treasure to one devoid of self-sacrifice, to the non-devotee, to the faithless, to one who is averse to My service or to one who is resentful towards Me.
ya imam paramam guhyam, mad-bhaktesv abhidhasyati
yah–One who; abhidhasyati–sings the glories of; imam–this; paramam–supreme; guhyam–secret; mat-bhaktesu–to My devotees; (sah)–such a person; krtva–attaining; param–transcendental; bhaktim–devotion; mayi–for Me; esyati–will reach; mam eva–Me; asamsayah–without a doubt.
68 One who reveals the glories of this supreme secret to My devotees will attain transcendental devotion for Me and reach Me without a doubt.
na cha tasman manusyesu, kaschin me priya-krttamah
manusyesu–In human society; na cha kaschit–no one; me priya-krttamah–pleases Me more by his actions; tasmat–than he (the preacher of Bhagavad-gita); cha–and; na bhavita–there will not be; anyah–any other; priyatarah–dearer; me–to Me; tasmat–than he; bhuvi–in the world.
69 In the entire human society there is no one who pleases Me by his actions more than he (who preaches the glories of the Bhagavad-gita), nor will there ever be anyone in the world dearer to Me than he.
adhyesyate cha ya imam, dharmyam samvadam avayoh
yah cha–And for he who; adhyesyate–studies; imam–this; dharmyam–holy; sam- vadam–conversation; avayoh–of ours; aham–I; syam–shall be; istah–worshipped; tena–by that (by him); jnana-yajnena–by the 'knowledge-sacrifice'. iti–That; me matih–is My opinion.
70 And one who studies with devotion this holy conversation of ours will worship Me by the 'knowledge-sacrifice'. This is My conclusion.
sraddhavan anasuyas cha, srnuyad api yo narah
sah narah api–That person, too; sraddhavan–possessing faith; anasuyah cha–and without resentment; yah–who; srnuyat api–only hears; muktah (san)–shall be liberated; (papat)–from sin; prapnuyat–and will reach; subhan–the auspicious; lokan–abodes; (prapya)–attainable; punya-karmanam–by the performers of virtuous acts.
71 Simply by hearing this with an open heart, a faithful person is liberated and attains to the auspicious abodes of the virtuous souls.
kachchid etach chhrutam partha, tvayaikagrena chetasa
(he) partha–O son of Kunti; kachchit–has; etat–this Gita; srutam–been heard; tvaya–by you; ekagrena–with your single-minded; chetasa–attention? (he) dhananjaya–O Arjuna; kachchit te–has your; ajnana-sammohah–ignorance and delusion; pranastah–been dispelled?
72 O Partha, have you listened to this with your undivided attention? O Dhananjaya, are you now free from the darkness of your delusion?
arjunah uvacha–Arjuna said: (he) achyuta–O Sri Krishna; tvat prasadat–by Your grace; (me)–my; mohah–delusion; nastah–is dispelled. smrtih–Self-remembrance; labdha–is regained; maya–by me. sthitah asmi–I am steady. gata-sandehah–My doubts have gone. karisye–I shall follow; tava–Your; vachanam–instructions.
73 Arjuna said: O infallible one, by Your grace my delusion is now gone, I can now remember who I am, my doubts are destroyed and I am firm in my resolve. I shall follow Your instructions.
sanjayah uvacha–Sanjaya said: iti–thus; aham–I; asrausam–heard; imam–this; adbhutam–wonderful; roma-harsanam–thrilling; samvadam–conversation; mahaatmanah vasudevasya–of the Supreme Soul Vasudeva; parthasya cha–and Arjuna.
74 Sanjaya said: Thus, I heard this wondrous conversation of the Supreme Soul Vasudeva and the son of Prtha, Arjuna, which arouses ecstasy in the hearts of all.
vyasa-prasadach chhrutavan, imam guhyam aham param
vyasa-prasadat–By the grace of Sri Vyasadeva; aham–I; srutavan–heard; imam–this; param–supreme; guhyam–secret; yogam–yoga (yoga of action, knowledge and devotion); saksat-kathayatah–spoken directly; yogesvarat–by the Lord of yoga; krsnat svayam–Krishna Himself.
75 By the mercy of Sri Vyasadeva I heard this supreme secret teaching of yoga, sung directly by the Supreme Lord of yoga, Lord Sri Krishna Himself.
rajan samsmrtya samsmrtya, samvadam imam adbhutam
(he) rajan–O King Dhrtarastra; samsmrtya samsmrtya–ever remembering; imam adbhutam–this miraculous; punyam–sacred; samvadam–conversation; kesava-arjunayoh–of Sri Krishna and Arjuna; hrsyami–my heart thrills; muhuh muhuh cha–repeatedly.
76 O King, ever remembering this miraculous, sacred conversation of Lord Sri Krishna and Arjuna, my heart thrills over and over again.
tach cha samsmrtya samsmrtya, rupam atyadbhutam hareh
(he) rajan–O King; samsmrtya samsmrtya cha–and repeatedly remembering; tat–that; ati-adbhutam–most miraculous; rupam–universal form; hareh–of the Lord, Sri Hari; me–my; mahan–great; vismayah–wonder; (bhavati)–occurs; cha–and; hrsyami–and I thrill with ecstasy; punah punah–again and again.
77 And remembering, O King, I marvel at that astonishing, almighty universal form of the Supreme Lord Hari, and my whole being thrills with ecstasy.
yatra yogesvarah krsno, yatra partho dhanur-dharah
yatra–Where there is; yoga-isvarah–the Lord of yoga, the objective of yoga; krsnah–Lord Krishna; yatra–where there is; dhanuh-dharah-parthah–Arjuna with bow in hand, the winner of wealth; tatra–there; dhruva–prevails; srih–fortune; vijayah–victory, Jayasri; bhutih–prosperity; nitih–and virtue. (iti)–This is; mama–my; matih–opinion.
78 Where there is Yogesvara Krishna, and where there is Arjuna, the winner of wealth with bow in hand, there prevails fortune, victory, prosperity and virtue. This is my opinion.
iti sri-mahabharate sata-sahasryam samhitayam vaiyasikyam
End of Chapter Eighteen
The Path of Liberation
from the conversation
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